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Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., M.R.I. A. 







First IhihlisJied July IQ04 

Secomi Editioti, Revised . . ■ Dece»ibe>- igog 








Preface . . . ... xiii 

Introductory— Divisions of the Prehistoric Period . i 

Stone Implements — Method of Manufacture . . i8 

Stone Implements — Eoliths — Pal^oliths . . . 40 

List of Caves in England and Wales . . 61 

List of Localities where River-Drift Implements 
have been Found . . . . 61 


Stone Implements — Neolithic Types — Overlap with 

Metal . . . ... 65 

The Metallic Age— Copper — Bronze . . . 88 

List of Hoards of Bronze Implements . . 104 


Bone Implements— Engravings, Carvings, and Art of 

Primitive Man — Ornaments . . . 107 

List of Cup-and-Ring Markings in England . 127 

a 2 vii 



Places of Burial — Barkows Loxc. and Round . .128 

List of Barrows 



Megalithic Remains — Dolmens — Cists — Circles — Align- 
ments — Menihirion . ... 174 
List of Dolmens ... . 195 
List of Other Megalithic Remains . . 197 


Earthworks — Camps — Dykes . ... 205 

List of Pre-Roman Earthworks . . . 224 

List of Dykes . , ... 252 


Early Places of Habitation — Pit-dwellings — Hut- 
circles — Souterrains — Dene -HOLES — Beehive 
Houses — Pile-dwellings — Crannoges — Terra- 
mare . . . ... 255 

List of Villages . . ... 274 

The Late Celtic or Early Iron Age . . . 282 

Physical Remains of Prehistoric Man . . . 301 

Appendix — List of Museums Containing Objects dealt 

WITH IN THIS Book . . . -313 

Index . . . ... 318 








Stonehenge [A/r/icco/o^ia'] . . . Frontispiece 

Scandinavian Dagger [W.] 

Flint Knife, Egyptian (from a specimen in the 

W. Macgregor) 
PalKolithic Implement, from Abbeville [W.] 
Palceolithic Implement, from Caversham [W.] 
Paloeolith, Chert, from Broom [U.B.] 
Glass Arrow-head and Implements used in its 

Australians . 
Method of manufacture of Glass Arrow-head 
and 7 from photos kindly provided by H. B 
Flint Flaking by percussion 
Flint Flaking by pressure (8 and 9 from Holmes's Stone Implements of 

the Potomac) . . . ■ 

Eoliths, Alderbury [W.] . 
Abraded Flint (W. G. Smith's oldest type) [W 
PalKolith, Flint (Broom) [U.B.] 
Palceolith, St. Acheul [U.B.] 
Implement free from flakes (right) and with 

Caddington (by kind permission of Mr. W. 
Mammoth, wall of grotto of Combarelles (aft 

Scrapers [W.] . 

Rough Stone Celt, Cissbury [W.] . 
Polished Celt, Irish [W.] . 
Polished Celt, Irish LW.] . 
Rough Chisel-shaped Celt, Dewlish [W.] 
Chisel-shaped Celts [U.B.] 

Flint Implement. Large scraper or small grubbing tool [W.] 
Handled Celt, Irish [by permission from Journal of Roy. Soc. of 

Antiqs. of Ireland\ 
Small Stone Celts, Swiss [W.] 
Flint Adze, Thames at Chertsey [W.] 

collection of the Rev 

manufacture by nativ 

by native Australian (6 
Ifour, Esq., M.A.) 

flakes reattached, 
G. Smith) 
r a figure in L ^Aiithro 












f Rev. R. Gatty] 

fiom Journal of Roy. 

26. Knives, flat-backed ami tanged, Newhaven, Sussex [U.B.] 

27. Curved Knife-like flint implement [U.B.] 

28. Double Concave and Ordinary Scrapers, Icklingham [W.] 

29. " Button" Scraper, Lakenheath [W.] 

30. Scrapers, Mas d'Azil (after a figure in I.' Aiithropologie) . 

31. Double Concave Scraper and Saw [W.] 

32. Flint Arrow-heads, Aberdeenshire [W.] 

33. Arrow-heads [W.] .... 

34. Arrow-heads [U.B.] .... 

35. Flint Arrow-head embedded in human lumbar vertebra (after a figure 

in U Anthropologic) 

36. Borer and Fabricator, Avebury [W.] 

37. Pigmy Implements [W., and from collection o 

38. Spindle Whorls [U.B.] . 

39. Flat Bronze Celt [W.] 

40. Bronze PalstafT[W.] 

41. Bronze Palstaff[W.] 

42. Looped and socketed bronze Celt [W.] 

43. Bronze Dagger with handle [by permission 

Soc. of Antiqs. of Ireland] 

44. Bronze Spearhead, Wrekin [W.] 

45. Bronze Sickle, Swiss Lake Village [W.] 

46. Harpoons of horn, French (after a figure in L'Anthropologie) 

47. Dress-fastener, La Madelaine (from cast) 

48. Bison and Man engraved on reindeer-horn (from cast) . 

49. Horses' heads carved in round on bone (after a figure in U Anthro 


50. Reindeer engraved on stone, St. Marcel (after a figure in UAnthro 

pologie) ..... 

51. Dagger of reindeer-horn (from cast) 

52. Neolithic and bronze ornamentation (various sources) 

53. Cup-and-Ring markings, Berwick . 

54. Jet Necklace (after a figure in Bateman's Ten Years' Digging) 

55. Plans of Long Barrows \_A)-ch(£ologia'] 

56. Entrance to Long Barrow, Uley \^Archceologia'\ 

57. Entrance to Long Barrow, West Kennett [^Archceologia'] 

58. Restoration of Long Barrow, West Kennett [Archcrologia] 

59. Section of Barrow with successive interments . . . 

60. Skeletons of woman and child from Round Barrow (by kind per 

mission of W. G. Smith) 





















Cinerary Urn, Durrington 

Cinerary Urn, Woodyates 

Incense Cup, Winterbourne Stoke . 

Incense Cup, grape pattern (61-64 after figures in Devizes Museum 

Dolmen, "Devil's Den," near Marlborough 
Dolmen, Bodowr, Anglesea 

Double Dolmen, Plas Newydd, Anglesea (65-67 from photos by autlior) 
Plan of Stonehenge l^Arckcuologia] 
Plan of Avebury {ArcJuio/ogia] 

Plan of Stone Circles at Stanton Drew [Archceologia] 
Menhir, "King's Stone" at Rollright (from photo by author) 
Menhir, Woeful Dane's Bottom (from photo by author) . 
Camp on Bredon Hill 

•Entrances to Maiden Castle, Dorset 

British Camp, Herefordshire Beacon 

Plan of British Camp, Herefordshire Beacon 

Plan of Yarnbury Castle, Wilts 

Cambridgeshire Dykes 

Ideal section of Pit-dwelling 

Plan of part of Woodcuts Village (after plan in 

Dene-holes ... 

Perforated Stone Hammer [U.B.] . 

Late Celtic ornament {Air/usologia'] 

Late Celtic ornament [Arclueo/ogia] 

Late Celtic Sword \_Arch(Tologia\ . , 

Late Celtic Sheath [Arckaologia] 

Late Celtic Bronze Shield 

Late Celtic Brooch [Proc. Soc. Antiqs.) 

Part of Bronze Torque (after a figure in Allie' 

Lore of Worcestershire . 
Dolichocephalic Skull 

Brachycephalic Skull (90 and 91, from photos l)y Dr. W. Wright) 
Curves of vaults of various skulls . . . . 




Y\\.\.-'KwQx^ Excavations) 261 
Antiquities and Folk 


The figures taken from Archvologia and Proc. Soc. Antiqs. are reproduced 
by kind permission of the Council. 
[W.] from author's collection. 
[U.B.] from Museum of University of Birmingham. 


THE object of this book is to give an account of 
tiie material relics of the Prehistoric period still 
to be seen in this country, and to that object the 
writer has endeavoured to adhere as closely as possible. 
To lay before his readers facts rather than theories has 
been the end always kept in view, and this not merely 
because space is limited and materials are many. There 
has been a vast amount of theory-spinning in connection 
with the early epochs of which this book treats, theory- 
spinning, in part not merely permissible but even neces- 
sary, but in part wholly superfluous. To judge from the 
accounts of Palaeolithic Man which occur in some books 
on Prehistoric Archaeology, it might be supposed that 
the writers had enjoyed the privileges possessed by 
Mr. Peter Ibbetson and the Duchess of Towers, and had 
dreamed themselves backwards so as to have actually seen 
and studied the men of whom they write — so closely are 
the habits, the appearance, and even the speech of our 
very remote ancestors described and descanted upon. To 
the scholar such discourses are of little moment. He is 
able to sift out the valuable portions of such books, when 
they possess any, from the valueless. But to the general 
reader it is otherwise. He is not to be supposed to be 
capable of knowing which statements are facts and which 
surmises. To dispense with theorising, as hinted above, 
in such a subject as this would be impossible, even if it 
were desirable ; nor has the attempt been made. But so 
far as is possible theory has been set aside for facts, and 



at least the reader has been warned when he is treading 
upon doubtful ground. 

It is the intention of the series, of which this book forms 
a part, that the antiquities described should be those of 
England, and here again, as far as may be, the plan 
indicated has been acted upon. But it would be impos- 
sible to write an adequate account of prehistoric objects 
confined entirely to this island, still more to the southern 
part of it only. It has been necessary to allude to other 
parts of the world, and notably to France, for without 
the French discoveries, a clear and consecutive account 
of the various epochs of the Prehistoric period would be 
impracticable. As far as possible, however, the objects 
described have been taken from English sources, and the 
lists at the ends of the chapters have been confined en- 
tirely to objects found in the counties of England. 

Perhaps it may be permissible and even advisable to 
say a word at this point about these lists. They are 
strictly "Trial-Lists," and though very great pains have 
been taken to make them accurate and complete, no one 
can be better aware than their author that, from the 
nature of things, they must necessarily suffer from sins of 
commission and omission. In the body of the book the 
author has tried as far as possible to describe objects 
which he has himself seen and studied, but it is obviously 
impossible for any one person to have seen and checked 
all the places mentioned in the lists. The lists have been 
compiled from the Ordnance Map, from Murray's and 
other County Handbooks, from Proceedings of various 
societies, and from other sources. After much considera- 
tion, and acting on the advice of competent authorities, 
it has been decided that the lists shall appear, and it is 
hoped that they may be at least useful as a basis for a 
more perfect compilation in the future. 

The author must not forget to acknowledge the help 


which he has received in compilinc^ these lists from his 
brother local secretaries of the Society of Antiquaries. 
Some of these gentlemen apparently did not receive any 
of the several letters addressed to them, since no reply 
could be obtained from them, but by the large majority 
most kindly help was at once and willingly given. The 
author can only hope that he may be able some day to 
repay in kind the assistance for which he is most truly 
grateful. In addition to these local experts, various lists 
have been looked through by Canon Greenwell, Mr. 
Gowland, Mr. I. Chalkley Gould, to whom the author's 
thanks are due and are here expressed. He has also to 
thank his friends. Professor Haddon, f.r.s., Mr. Henry 
Balfour, Baron A. von Hiigel, Dr. Blackmore, Mr. St. 
John Hope, Mr. Gowland, and the Rev. R. A. Gatty, for 
advice of various kinds. And he must express his ac- 
knowledgments to those societies and individuals who 
have allowed the reproduction of drawings from their 
proceedings of works. 

The author desired, as far as possible, to have a new set 
of illustrations and not to repeat the figures which have 
done duty so frequently in other books on the subject. 
That all the figures should be absolutely new was im- 
possible, but a large number are, and all have been drawn 
or redrawn by the author's wife. To enumerate the 
sources from which information has been obtained for 
the purposes of this book would be an impossible task 
here, and it is hoped that it has been rendered unneces- 
sary by the copious references to the literature which have 
been given throughout. 

B. C. A. W. 

Maids Cross, Solihull 


An asterisk prefixed to any name in the 
lists indicates that the place is one of special 


A SECOND edition of this work having been called 
for, I have endeavoured to incorporate in it not 
only various observations and discoveries which 
have been made public since the first appearance of this 
work, but also the numerous corrections and additions, 
chiefly in the Trial-Lists, which I owe to the kindness of 
many correspondents, mostly unknown to me, and to 
whom I desire hereby to return my thanks. The last 
chapter, being avowedly a mere sketch of a subject 
which might easily form a volume in itself, would have 
been omitted but that my valued friend Dr. William 
Wright, F.S.A., whose knowledge of Physical Anthrop- 
ology is so great and so well known, came to my 
assistance and enabled me still to include it as an outline 
of what is known on this matter at the present day. My 
acknowledgments to him for his kindness are but poorly 
given in this statement. May I beg that correspondents 
will continue to extend to me the kindness which they 
have shown in the past, and will send any corrections 
or suggestions which may occur to them ? 

B. C. A. W. 

University College, Cork 
September 22nd, 1909 




THOUGH the intention of this book is rather to 
describe the various classes of objects connected 
with the Prehistoric era, than to give a continuous 
description of that period, it is clear that some prefatory- 
account of the epochs into which the time with which we 
are dealing has been divided, and of the objects character- 
istic of each, must be submitted to the reader before the 
special task of the book is attacked. And this account 
again will itself require to be prefaced by some notice of 
the geological history of the later periods of the world's 
history in which the presence of man may either be 
proved, or, though at present unproved, may be looked 
for as possible. In considering the problems presented 
by inquiries into prehistoric archaeology, one must never 
forget that many of them, and especially those connected 
with the earlier periods, are almost exclusively geological 
in their nature, and can only be solved on geological 
lines. Hence in deciding such a question as that, for 
example, of the nature and date of eoliths, there are two 
distinct matters for discussion. First as to the artificial 



or natural character of the objects, which is a point to 
be decided by a prehistoric archaeologist, experienced 
in comparing flints worked by man with others whose 
fractures and facets are the product of purely natural 
forces. But after this is determined, there is a second 
matter for discussion — the age of the gravels in which the 
implements are found ; and this is, of course, a purely 
geological problem, and must be solved by a geologist, 
or, at least, on geological principles. 

Geological time is divided into Paleozoic, Mesozoic, 
and Cainozoic periods, the first-named being the most 
ancient. With this great period, and w^ith the Mesozoic 
which succeeded it, we have no concern in this book, 
nor need their subdivisions here be mentioned. At the 
Cainozoic period we must look a little more closely. It is 
subdivided into Tertiary and Quaternary eras, and each 
of these has further subdivisions, which may be set out 
as follows: — 

Tertiary (commencing with the oldest beds): 

Miocene (unrepresented in Britain). 

Quaternary : 

Pleistocene. Terrestrial, Alluvial, Estuarine, Marine, 

and Glacial Beds of Palaeolithic Age. 
Recent. Terrestrial, Alluvial, Estuarine, and Marine 
Beds of Neolithic, Bronze, Iron, and Historic Ages. 

Over the consideration of the two older divisions of the 
Tertiary period we need not linger, for, so far, no sugges- 
tion that man existed during their continuance has been 
made. The earliest objects which have been attributed to 
him have been found in miocene deposits, and without, 
for the moment, considering whether these objects are 
really what they have been claimed to be, we will take 


up the geological story at this point. The Miocene period 
appears to have been one of a somewhat tropical charac- 
ter, since the nearest representatives of many of its most 
characteristic plants are to be found in India and in 
Australia. During the Pliocene period these conditions 
gradually altered, the flora, from which the characteristic 
palms of the previous age have disappeared, indicating a 
more temperate climate. To this succeeded, in the Pleis- 
tocene age, alternating periods of Arctic cold and of more 
genial weather, to which the name of the Glacial epoch 
has been assigned. During the Arctic parts of this period 
Britain, then, and in the preceding epoch, connected with 
the rest of the continent of Europe by dry land, was 
covered in large part with huge glaciers, whose traces, in 
the shape of erratic blocks, moraines, and other evidences 
of ice-action, are still to be seen in many parts of the 
island. But the course of events, so far as the subject- 
matter of this book is affected by geological considerations, 
may be set down in tabular form, as summarised from 
Woodward's Geology of England and Wales. As before, 
the table commences with the older period, and gradually 
conducts us to the present. 
Pliocene : 

At the end of this period, when the Cromer Forest and 
Norwich Crag- Series were laid down, there were in- 
dications of approaching cold. 
Pleistocene : 

The history of this the earlier division of the Quaternary 
period has been subdivided by geologists into the 
following periods : — 

(a) Elevation of the land with severe glacial conditions. 

The earliest boulder clays deposited. 

(b) Submergence of considerable areas and deposition of 

marine sands and gravels, such as the shelly sands 
and gravels of Moel Tryfan, Macclesfield, Blackpool, 


(c) Elevation of land, accompanied by intense glacial con- 

ditions, with great ice-sheets formed by confluent 
glaciers, extending over large tracts of country. 

(d) Britain continental, with climate changing from intense 

cold to temperate and genial. Arctic and southern 
mammalia, mammoth, rhinoceros, hyaena, etc., visit 
Britain, according as climatal conditions become 
suited to their needs. Plateau gravels (in part) and 
raised beaches (in part) formed. Mammaliferous 
gravels. PalcFolithic impleyncnts. 

(e) Severe glacial conditions, with glaciers and coast-ice, 

affecting more particularly Scotland, Wales, and 
the northern districts of England. 

(f) Retreat of the ice, and periods of small local glaciers 

on the higher mountain regions, when Britain was 
probably isolated, and land of less extent than now. 
Recent : 

(g) Britain again becomes continental. Summer and winter 
temperatures more excessive than now. Age of 
great forests. Incoming of recent fauna. Raised 
beaches (in part), river gravels, and some cave 
deposits belong to this period. 

(h) Depression bringing about final insulation of Britain. 
Climate humid. Decay of forests and growth of 
peat-mosses. Modern beaches and marine deposits 
(Burtle beds, etc.), blown sand, etc., submerged 
(i) The present. 

(During the whole of the recent period Neolithic and 
other evidences of Man's presence are discoverable.) 

In addition to the notes in the table above as to the 
mammals of the different periods, a few further observa- 
tions must be made, and for this reason. The age of 
implements made by man has often to be determined, 
indeed in many cases can only be determined, by a 
consideration of the objects with which they have been 
discovered. Amongst these the most important are the 


teeth and bones of extinct mammals. If, for example, 
undoubted implements can be shown to have been found 
in undisturbed strata with the teeth and other relics of 
a given species of elephant, then, if we know the relative 
date of the elephant in question, we can assign a period 
for the implements found with its remains. During the 
epoch which the table covers there was, as will be noticed, 
an earlier period during which large mammals, now extinct, 
formed an important part of the fauna. To this suc- 
ceeded a later period when, the larger mammals having 
died out, the fauna was characterised by animals similar 
to, indeed for the most part identical with, those of the 
present day. In France the earlier part of the first period 
was specially characterised by the mammoth, the later by 
the reindeer. To be a little more specific, the following 
list of the more important mammals may be added : — 

In the latest Pliocene period the remains of three species 
of elephant are to be met with, namely — 

Elephns meridionalis, 
,, aiitiquiis. 
,, primigcnius var. (rare). 

With these existed a hippopotamus (//. amph{hins\ a 
rhinoceros (i?. etntsciis), and horse, deer, hyasna (//. 
crocuta, var. spelaeiis), and the glutton. 

In the Pleistocene period two elephants are found, viz. — 

Elephas antiquus, the straigflit-tusked or early 
,, primigcnius, the mammoth. 

It will be noticed that E. meridionalis, met with in the 
earlier period, has now disappeared from the fauna. In 
addition to the elephants were two species of rhinoceros — 

RJiitioceros fic/iorhiniis, the woolly. 

,, Icptorhinus, the small-nosed. 


And there were also the cave-lion and cave-bear, the 
sabre-toothed lion {Machaifodus latidens)^ the leopard, 
lynx, glutton, and cave-hyasna. All these are now 
extinct, at least in this country, but of the following, also 
met with in the period under consideration, all have been 
met with in recent deposits, and some exist at the present 
day amongst our native fauna. The horse, urus {Bos 
primigenius)^ roe-deer, red-deer and reindeer, the Irish 
elk, wild boar, brown bear, fox, wolf, wild cat, otter, 
badger, etc. 

With these prefatory remarks of a geological character, 
we may now pass to the consideration of the important 
question — When did Man first make his appearance? It 
is a question which cannot be answered with any certainty 
at present, since there is much difference of opinion on 
the point amongst scientific men. It is not wonderful 
that such should be the case when it is considered that 
the decision rests upon the nature of certain very rude 
stone implements. Are these the work of man, or are 
they shaped by natural forces? Such is the question 
which has to be answered when dealing with the point 
now under consideration. Nor is the determination an 
easy matter from the very nature of things. The stone 
implement in its first inception was doubtless nothing 
more than a conveniently shaped natural stone. The 
Semangs, a tribe of the Malay Peninsula, use no other 
stone implements than these to the present day, and find 
them when supplemented by fragments of shell, of wood, 
or of bamboo, sufficient for their simple needs. To 
identify stone implements of the Prehistoric period be- 
longing to this category is almost, if not absolutely, 
impossible. And the first touches applied to such imple- 
ments, in order to render them a little handier to grasp 
or more efficacious as weapons or tools, must necessarily 
have been slight, and with difficulty distinguishable from 


the operations of nature. But, with all allowances of 
this kind, it must be admitted that the verdict of the 
scientific world is, so far, decidedly opposed to the 
acceptance as genuine works of the hand of man of 
the flints discovered by the Abbe Bourgeois at Thenay 
(Loire-et-Cher) in miocene beds, or by M. Ribeira in 
strata of the same period at Otta in Spain. For the 
present, then, we must seek a later period for the advent 
of man. 

To many observers the first undeniable implements 
are those known as eoliths, to which full consideration 
will be given in a later chapter. It is true that some 
eminent authorities still refuse to concede that these 
objects are anything else but the product of nature ; 
but there is a considerable weight of opinion on the 
side of those who accept these flints as genuine arte- 

But when this point is cleared up, the whole ques- 
tion is not settled. Granted that they are the work of 
man's hands, there is still some difference of opinion 
as to the age of the gravels in which they have been 
found, some authorities assigning them to the Pliocene, 
others to the Pleistocene period. 

The Rev. F. Smith ^ has recently described a number 
of implements, which he believes to be of human 
manufacture, which are inter- or pre-glacial and bear 
in many cases the marks of glaciation. Still it must 
be admitted that much doubt still exists as to the 
date of the advent of man. No person, at any rate, 
would hesitate to go as far as Lord Avebury has 
gone in the summing-up of the subject which he 
gives, '^ though some would claim that the earlier period 

* The Stone Ages in North Britain and Ireland, 1909. 
^ Scenery of England, p. 82. 


there alluded to is not merely probable, but actually 

"Whether," writes the author just mentioned, "man 
existed in Britain before the Glacial period, or during 
the inter-Glacial periods of a more genial climate, there 
is still some difference of opinion, though it seems 
probable ; but there can be no doubt that he was 
here soon after the final disappearance of glacial con- 
ditions, and coexisted with the mammoth, the woolly- 
haired rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the musk-sheep, 
the gigantic Irish elk, the great bear, and the cave- 

Let us leave the question of eoliths for the time, and 
grant, for the sake of argument, that they are to be 
accepted. Starting with them, the periods of Pre- 
historic time, with certain characteristics of each, may 
be shown in tabular form, the table being, in almost 
every particular, identical with one drawn up by 
Fischer, on the basis of the observations of Piette^ 
(see opposite page). 

It will now be necessary somewhat to develop the 
information contained in this table, and first of all it 
should be made quite clear that when the Palaeolithic, 
or Neolithic, or Bronze periods are spoken of, all that is 
implied is that certain phases, or stages, characterised by 
these names have been passed through, apparently by 

^ L' AntJiropologie , vol. vii. p. 633. Piette's even more recent classifica- 
tion may be found in Zetitralbl. f. Anthrop. Ethn. u. Urgeschichte, 1901, 
p. 65. It is perhaps well to point out that there are many classifications 
and divisions of the Prehistoric period, and will probably be many more, 
each marking a fresh stage in our knowledge. That which is given 
above will serve to indicate the main chain of events, however much it may 
require subsequent emendation in details. N. B. — The attention of the 
reader is particularly called to the sketch of Hoernes' classification, given 
on p. 56. 






2 2- 

Cl, C ^ ' 
_Qj as 12 ■ 

Passage. Homo — Elephas antiquus — E. mcriili 
onalis — E. primigenius. rrobably Pliocene 
Eoliths. ? 




CheUeaii. E. antiquus predominant. Implements 
mostly oval, with a cutting edge at the point. 
Body thick after the shape of an almond or 
peach stone. 

' Mousterian. 
E. primigenius. 
Rh. tichorhinus. 
Ursus spelKus. 

Transition. E. primigenius 
and E. antiquus 

Mousterian properly so-called. 
Points and scrapers. 

o / 

« \ 





r "1 cs u j3 

Papal i an, 
or equidian, 
or ivory. 

Rounded sculptures. 



Champ-leve& simple 

Present fauna 
with reindeer in 
S. of France. 

'Reindeer. Simple grav- 
ings. Harpoons of 
reindeer horn. 

V O 

Red Deer. Simple grav- 
ings. Needles. Har- 
poons of reindeer 
and stag's horns. 


Asylian. C. elaphus. Coloured Pebbles. Rein- 
deer emigrating north. !^ 

Shells. Strong vegetation. 

Polished stone celts. 

J s 

-{ Bronze, with overlap of polished stone. 
\Early Iron, with overlap of bronze. 


many, perhaps by most, of the races of the world. Com- 
paratively few of the types of implements made during 
the stone period afford us conclusive evidence as to the 
period in it to which they belong. Moreover, stone 
implements continued to be manufactured long after 
bronze was known, indeed, for certain purposes stone is 
still utilised in all countries for the manufacture of imple- 
ments. The objects characteristic of the different periods 
are only the dominant features, at given moments, in a 
continual stream of progress. And the course of this 
stream has neither been identical nor synchronous in 
different countries, not even in the countries of what we 
now know as Europe. To take an extreme example : 
many, if not most, of the primitive races, when discovered 
for the first time by white men, have been found to be still 
employing stone implements and ignorant of the use 
of metal. Thus they are dwellers in a Stone Age, a phase 
of development from which their discoverers had long 
emerged. And so in earlier times it must not be sup- 
posed that the whole of Europe emerged at the same time 
from the Stone Age and entered that of metal. The dis- 
covery of bronze, or the earlier discovery of copper, once 
made, spread, probably slowly, from one, or perhaps — for 
there is no reason to suppose that the discovery may not 
have been independently arrived at in various places — from 
several points, into regions previously unacquainted with 
the use of metals. Hence we shall be expressing the 
point more clearly if w^e say that, so far as we know, all 
races have gone through a stage of civilisation during 
which the use of metal was unknown. This we call the 
Stone Age, and it is customary to divide it into tw^o main 
portions or periods — Palaeolithic and Neolithic. The im- 
plements of the earlier period are found either in the old 
gravels of rivers — the river-drift implements — or in caverns. 
Of the two the river-drift have been generally supposed to 


be the earlier in date, but this is a point which cannot be 
considered to be finally settled. The neolithic implements 
present many types unknown in the earlier period, though 
there are others which are common to both. They are, 
however, surface implements, and are not found in river- 
drifts. They may, of course, be found in caves, just as 
much more modern objects may, but when this is the 
case, as will be seen from the description shortly to be 
given of Kent's Hole and other caves, the palccolithic 
are separated from the neolithic implements, and lie in 
different strata. It must not be supposed that during the 
Stone Age implements were made of nothing but stone. 
No doubt, throughout all the history of the human race, 
man has made implements of wood and other substances. 
But stone is, of all these materials, the least perishable, 
hence the fact that we have so many more relics of this 
class than of any other. But the caverns of the Palaeolithic 
period, and particularly the relics of the later parts of this 
epoch, often called in France the Magdalenian epoch, 
show us that man had become an expert in fashioning 
implements of bone and in adorning them with ornament- 
ation. This is the Glyptic period of the table on page 9. 
It has been commonly assumed that in Britain at least, 
and indeed in Europe, there was a great and unbridged 
gap between the older and the newer ages of stone. That 
there must have been a continuity somewhere was, of 
course, conceded, but it was claimed that in this part of 
the world there was no evidence of any such link, and 
that the neolithic civilisation was of a kind wholly different, 
and not even derived from the palaeolithic civilisation 
of the same district. Recent discoveries in France seem, 
however, to show conclusively that the continuity between 
the two ages is distinctly traceable in that country. It will 
be well to devote a little consideration to this matter, 
since the facts to be related have come under notice 


in quite recent years, and have as yet scarcely made 
their way into English text-books. The most important 
researches are those which have been carried out by 
M. Piette in a cave or grotto known as Mas d'Azil, on the 
left bank of the river Arise, in Ariege. 

The layers found in this place, taken in historical order, 
are as follows : — 

(i.) Gravel and mud with charcoal, traces of hearths and 

(ii.) Black archa;ological layer. Flints of magdalenian 
type. Bone implements, including" needles and har- 
poons. Belongs to the last part of the Cervidian 
(iii.) A layer of sand indicating- an inundation or inundations, 
(iv.) Black archaeological layer, belonging to the last part 
of the reindeer epoch. Bone harpoons and en- 
g-ravings. Flint implements of magdalenian type. 
With these are found small round scrapers (see Fig. 
30) and fine knife-shaped implements, the precursors 
of those of a later time, 
(v.) A further layer of sand resembling (iii.) and due to a 

similar cause, 
(vi.) Red layer owing its colour to masses of peroxide of 
iron. Reindeer remains absent, but many stags' 
horns. Harpoons made from them. Pierced stags' 
teeth. Magdalenian implements of flint and other 
implements like those in the fourth la3'er. Small 
pebbles, polished at one end, which may have been 
employed as chisels or cutting instruments, 
(vli.) Bed containing- many shells of Helix neynoralis. Per- 
forated harpoons of stag's horn. Flint implements 
like those of the last layer and other varieties. This 
layer corresponds to the kitchen-middens of other 
parts of the world. 
(viii.) Black muddy layer containing obvious neolithic imple- 
ments and fragments of pottery, and at its more 
superficial layers masses of verdigris, showing the 
Bronze Age to have been in existence. 


Here there seems to be a clear transition from one 
period to the other, but it must be admitted that to some 
this is not evident. Boyd Dawkins/ for example, con- 
siders that ** there is no proof of transition in this sequence, 
but of mixture." When, however, the subject of bone 
implements comes to be dealt with, the facts to be brought 
forward in connection with the subject of harpoons will 
add further testimony to the fact that here may be seen 
the transition era between the different periods of the 
Stone Age. Piette- teaches that the period of transition 
which succeeded the Glacial epoch commenced when the 
modern fauna began to replace the ancient, which was on 
its way to extinction, i.e.^ after what he calls the Equidian 
epoch. This period of transition he divides into three 
phases, (i.) The Cervidian, during which the reindeer 
continued to occupy the land and the old industries of 
the earlier periods were still in vogue; (ii.) the Asylian 
(named from the grotto described above). The reindeer 
had disappeared, and the art of graving and sculpture 
had been forgotten. Man now took to colouring the 
curious pebbles, to be described in a later chapter, (iii.) 
The shell period {coqiiilliere), a time of rich vegetation. 
Amongst the relics of this time large numbers of snail- 
shells are found. This period has also been called Cam- 
pignian, from Campigny, a place where somewhat similar, 
but less striking, results have been obtained by d'Ault du 
Mesnil and others. By Laville-' the term ^^ couches infm- 
neolithiqiies''' has been applied to the beds belonging to 
this period of transition, which he has studied in the 
district of the Seine. Here he has found (i.) a Chelleo- 
Mousterian (early Palceolithic) layer, which some might 
describe as purely Chellean ; (ii.) A Mousterio-Magda- 
lenian layer. In neither of these has any fragment of 

^ Man, 1903, p. 59. - L'Antliropologie, vii. 388. 

3 Bull, et Mdm. de la Soc. d'Ayithropologle de Paris, ser. v. t. ii. p. 206, 


pottery been found, but in the latter was discovered an 
axe-head of almost neolithic form. The next two layers 
(iii. and iv.) are those which he calls infra-neolithic, since 
they lie between i. and ii., which all would admit to be 
palaeolithic, and two further layers (v. and vi.) which are 
equally undoubtedly neolithic. Further observations, less 
conclusive in their nature, have been made by Boule^ in 
connection with objects found in and on the shores of 
Lake Karar in Algeria. Such being some of the evidence 
for the existence of a Mesolithic period in France, one 
may ask, Is there anything of a similar nature in this 
island? Several attempts have been made to bridge over 
the supposed gap here, but so far, it must be admitted, 
without complete success. The late General Pitt-Rivers^ 
in his account of his excavations at Cissbury raised the 
question as to whether the objects there discovered might 
be looked upon as a transition between the paleolithic 
and neolithic types. But these implements may quite 
well be merely celts in the middle stage of manufacture 
(see p. 69), in fact, this is the general opinion as to their 
nature. Brown^ considers that he has been able to establish 
the continuity of the various periods as a result of his 
observations at East Dean and elsewhere. He classifies 
stone implements as follows: (i.) Eoliths. — Roughly 
hewn pebbles and nodules and naturally broken stones 
showing work, with thick ochreous patina found on the 
plateaux of the chalk and other districts in beds uncon- 
nected with the present valley drainage, (ii.) Palceoliths. 
— Implements from the higher river-drift of the present 
valleys, and such as from their forms are of the same age, 
but are found in the oldest breccia deposit of some lime- 
stone caverns. These implements are made from nodules, 

^ L' Anthropologic, t. xi. p. i. 

^ ArchcFologia, xlii. 

* Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxii. p. 66. 


and, as may be gathered from their form, were generally 
used in the hand, without haft, (iii.) Mesoliihic. — Imple- 
ments which from their form, and in many cases from the 
character of the deposit in which they are found, appear 
to be of an intermediate age, between the Paleolithic and 
Neolithic periods. The implements are of flat pear-shape, 
or of more decided axe-form. There is no implement 
with unworked butt. The implements are made from 
flakes struck off nodules taken directly from the chalk. 
(iv.) Neolithic. — Implements of polished stone or delicately 
flaked. A further description of mesolithic implements 
is given by Worthington Smith, to whose pages^ the 
reader in search of additional information may be referred. 
In Ireland, Knowles^ claims identity between certain neo- 
lithic implements found in White Park Bay, County 
Antrim, and the palseolithic types of France. His idea 
is that they may have been fabricated by tribes travelling 
northwards in the wake of the reindeer, which was desert- 
ing the southern parts of Europe, and that these tribes 
continued to make paleolithic implements whilst little by 
little becoming influenced by neolithic civilisation. " I 
am convinced," he writes, "that a good contingent of 
those tribes who used the Mousterian and Solutrian " 
(both paleolithic) "types of implements came to the 
British area, and that the best examples of their art and 
skill are to be found among the flint implements of the 
North of Ireland. "2 In Scotland discoveries have been 
made at the MacArthur Cave near Oban, which seem to 
point to a period of transition being traceable there. In 
this cave on the bed-rock was a layer of gravel. Above 
this was a shell-bed with flint scrapers, and many bone 
implements. Amongst these were flattened harpoons, 
double-barbed, and some perforated like those of Mas 

' Man, the Pritnceval Savage, p. 299. 
^ Proc. Royal Soc. of Antiqtiarics of Ireland, vii. p. i. 
•' P'or a further paper on the older series of Irish Flint Implements see 
Nina F. Layard, Man, No. 54, 1909. 


d'Azil and Reilhac (Lot). This was probably a layer 
of transition type. Specimens from this cave are in the 
National Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh, and no 
one examining them can doubt the identity of the type 
of the harpoons with those mentioned. Fig. 46 might 
well have been drawn from one of the Scotch examples. 
Above it was another layer of gravel, surmounted by an 
upper shell-bed of the kitchen-midden type, above which 
again was humus. 

Similar finds have been made at a rock-shelter at 
Druimvargie, near Oban, and at Oronsay.^ To sum up. 
Many are convinced that the period of transition has been 
demonstrated, at least in France ; others still remain un- 
convinced. Most persons would hesitate to claim that it 
had been shown to exist in these islands, though there is 
at least some evidence for it ; and one may hope and even 
expect that before long this will become more convincing 
in the light of future discoveries. Considerable space has 
been given to this point because it is one of great contro- 
versial interest at the present moment. Much less space 
will be required to finish the remaining points of a pre- 
liminary nature. No one doubts that the knowledge of 
bronze, probably, in some parts of the world, preceded 
by a period when pure copper was used, became diffused 
amongst the same peoples as those who made the neolithic 
implements. Here there is no trace of a hiatus ; indeed, 
on the contrary, there is abundant evidence of a very 
extensive overlap, for some of the most highly finished 

^ Further papers on this subject, which cannot be dealt with here, are 
Boyd-Da.v>'kins, Journal of Antliropological Institute, xxiii. 242, who does not 
think that the progress of discovery has yet bridged over the abyss separat- 
ing' the Paleolithic age of the Pleistocene period from the Neolithic age of 
the Prehistoric period in any part of the world ; Woldrich, L Anthropologie, 
1. 488, "Caves of Cracovia ; James, Journal of Atithropological Institute, 
i. 50. Cf. also ib. p. 321 ; Laville, C. R., Cong. Internat. d'Anth. etdArch., 
1903, 201 ; Capitan, ib. p. 206. 


implements of stone, the perforated and polished axe- 
heads, and perhaps also the finer arrow-heads, were made, 
and perhaps only made, at a time when bronze was being 
forged. Bronze arrow-heads are almost unknown in this 
country, their place having apparently been taken by 
cheaper substitutes in stone. Similarly the bronze gradu- 
ally faded into the early iron period, both metals being 
used side by side at the same time, as indeed, for their 
diverse purposes, they are at the present day. The 
theories as to the discovery of bronze and other matters 
of a general character untouched upon in this chapter will 
be dealt with in later parts of the book. 


DURING a large part of the Stone Age, and the 
entire of the Bronze and of the Iron, implements 
were made of other materials than that from which 
each period receives its name. But as the materials which 
give their names to the several eras were those which 
dominated the manufactures of each, it will be well to 
deal with them before passing to the consideration of any 
of the other objects associated with the Prehistoric period. 
Moreover, there is another reason, namely, that the dating 
— the relative dating, of course — of such things as earth- 
works and tumuli depends upon a knowledge of the stone, 
bronze, or iron objects which have been found in them. 
In fact, the question of stone implements is one which 
underlies all the problems of early archceology, and a 
knowledge of it is essential to all who would study and 
understand the early history of our race, and, indeed, it 
may be said, the history of all races in their primitive 
condition. There is one other piece of knowledge which 
is of almost equal value, and that is, a knowledge of the 
age of different kinds of pottery, and for estimating the 
period of the larger relics of the later Prehistoric period, 
such as earthworks, this knowledge is invaluable. But 
pottery was not invented until after the end of the older 
stone period in Europe ; at least, if it was there are no 
frasrments which have come down to us. Hence for the 
earlier portions of the history of man we are dependent 



upon a knowledge of stone implements. The present 
chapter will be devoted to the consideration of certain 
questions connected with the manufacture of stone imple- 
ments, the varieties of which will be dealt with in the 

How are Stone Implements to be recognised 
as the work of Man ? 
In the case of many forms there can be no reasonable 
doubt as to the nature of the implement. 
For example, no one would argue that a 
grindstone or a mill-stone, both of them 
stone implements of the present time, or a 
stone mortar, made by a North American 
Indian at a distant date, were objects 
fashioned merely by nature's art. Nor 
could such finely worked tools as the Scan- 
dinavian dagger shown in Fig. i, or the 
Egyptian knife (Fig. 2), be mistaken for 
anything else but what they are — the work 
of highly skilled artists in the handling of 
stone. Nor, finally, would anyone suppose 
that the different kinds of arrow-heads, 
some of which are shown in Figs. 32, 33, 
34, were natural forms. It is true that 
sagittiform chips are common enough in 
some parts of the country. There are 
quantities of them, for example, in the 
gravels of the Warwickshire Avon, into 
which they have been washed from the 
glacial drift of the eastern side of the 
county, and some of these have from time 
to time been put forward as true arrow- 
heads. But the trained eye could never 
be deceived by the resemblance — it is only '"'• ' 

... , , , , , FLINT DACOliR 

a slight resemblance — between these and Danish (3) 


the genuine works of man's hands. In all the cases cited 
above, and in many others of which mention will be made 
in later pages, no person whose atten- 
tion had ever been drawn to the sub- 
ject could for a moment feel any doubt 
as to the artificial character of the 
object. But it is not so in every in- 
stance. In fact, it is only in compara- 
tively recent years that any of these 
flint implements have been noticed, 
and the ultimate recognition of the 
earlier forms has only been accom- 
plished after a length of time and a 
somewhat heated controversy. As far 
as is known, the earliest example 
discovered and recorded is an ex- 
ceedingly interesting specimen of the 
palccolithic type, which is now to be 
seen in the British Museum (Case 105, 
Prehistoric Department), which was 
described in the Sloane Catalogue 
as "A British weapon found, with 
elephant's tooth, opposite to Black 
Mary's, near Grayes Inn Lane." This 
specimen appears to have been dis- 
covered at the end of the seventeenth 
century, and was preserved — one may 
say by accident — down to a period 

when its nature and significance were 

FIG. 2 


Egyptian (I) 


In Dugdale's History of Warwick- 
shire^ and in Frere's account of his 
discoveries at Hoxne (1797), stone implements are re- 
cognised as having been the weapons of a people un- 
acquainted with the use of metals. But it was not until 



Boucher de Perthes made his classical discoveries at 
Abbeville that the attention of scientihc men was really 
drawn to the subject and search made for similar objects 
in other places. In Fig. 3 an example of one of the 
flints found at Abbeville in 1861 is represented, and it is 
perhaps not astonishing that 
when the discovery was first 
made public there were many 
who refused assent to the con- 
clusions of the discoverer. In 
time, as we know, opposition 
was worn down, and no one 
now doubts that these and 
many thousands of similar 
implements which have been 
found elsewhere are genuine 
products of man's industry. 
History seems to be repeating 
itself in the case of the so-called 
eoliths. These objects, which 
have only come under discus- 
sion within recent years, are 
still regarded as natural forms 
by some authorities of the 
greatest eminence, though year 
by year more and more persons 

are becoming convinced that the claims put forward in 
favour of their artificial character are just. As regards 
flakes and other objects which cannot be given any 
definite name as implements> there are several points to 
be noticed. Taking, first of all, those made of flint, it 
may be pointed out that every fragment of flint in a 
non-flint district, unless it has been brought there as 
gravel or in some other accidental manner at a later date, 
was probably brought there by Neolithic Man, and will 

FIG. 3. I'AL/^.OI.ITil 
Abbeville Q) 


generally show signs of having been worked by him. 
For example, all over the Cotswolds, which are oolitic in 
geological character, flint flakes of various sizes as well 
as arrow-heads and other implements are to be found. 
All of these are neolithic in nature, and in such a country 
the eye of the observer can hardly fail to be caught by the 
sight of fragments of flint in freshly-ploughed fields and 
elsewhere, because of the absence of this stone from the 
natural formations of the district. In districts where flint 
occurs naturally, as a part of the chalk or as part of the 
drift, and in river gravels, as it does in some districts of 
Warwickshire, it is less easy to distinguish the artificial 
from the natural fragments, and in all cases some definite 
rules must be known in order that an artificially-worked 
flint may be distinguished from a natural form. Now (i.) 
in detaching a flake from a lump of flint by means of a 
blow, the operator will require a tolerably flat surface on 
which to strike if his action is to be eftective, and the 
striking stone is not to slip upon that which is struck 
without detaching a flake from it. Hence at the end of 
the flake where the blow has been given there will be 
seen a small portion of the original flat surface which 
received the impact, (ii.) In the next place, when a flake 
is detached, by means of a blow, from a piece of flint, 
especially if resting on the hand or on some elastic pad, 
the plane of fracture between the two is not flat, but at the 
end nearest the place where the blow was struck there will 
be seen on the surface of the flake a rounded elevation 
known as the " bulb of percussion." To this will natur- 
ally correspond a depression on the surface of the block 
from which the flake has been detached. This bulb is 
due to the elastic nature of the flint, and its method of 
production is fully described by Sir John Evans. ^ He 

Ancient Sto7ie Implements, p. 273. 


says, "If a blow from a spherical-ended hammer be de- 
livered at right angles on a large flat surface of flint, the 
part struck is only a minute portion of the surface, which 
may be represented by a circle of very small diameter. 
If flint were malleable, instead of being slightly elastic, a 
dent would be produced at the spot ; but being elastic, 
this small circle is driven slightly inward into the body of 
the flint, and the result is that a circular fissure is pro- 
duced between that part of the flint which is condensed 
for the moment by the blow, and that part which is left 
untouched. As each particle in the small circle on which 
the hammer impinges may be considered to rest on more 
than one particle, it is evident that a circular fissure, as it 
descends into the body of the flint, will have a tendency 
to enlarge in diameter, so that the piece of flint it includes 
will be of conical form, the small circle struck by the 
hammer forming the slightly truncated apex. ... If the 
blow be administered near the edge, instead of in the 
middle of the surface of the block, a somewhat similar 
effect will be produced, but the cone in that case will be 
imperfect, as a splinter of flint will be struck off, the 
fissure probably running along the line of least resist- 
ance." The bulb of percussion may almost be looked 
upon as a hall-mark of human work. Almost but not 
quite, for it is obvious that it may be produced by any 
kind of suitable blow, and such a blow might conceivably 
be given by a piece of stone falling from a height, for 
example, from the face of a cliff, upon a flat piece of flint 
lying on the sand below. But (iii.) if the flake shows on 
the opposite side to that which bears the bulb marks of 
the detachment of other flakes, in the shape of ribs indi- 
cating the lines of separation, then its artificial character 
may be said to have been established. In districts where 
flint does not occur and where some other hard kind of 
stone, e.g. quartzite, has been employed for the manu- 


facture of implements, the recognition of artificial flakes 
is much more difficult and may be impossible. Here 
there is no bulb of percussion to help, and the flakes may 
be the result of frost or other natural agencies and not of 
man's handiwork. But in the case of flint flakes the flat 
top, the bulb on one side and the ribs on the other, should 
be looked for. The characteristics of more definite imple- 
ments will be dealt with in later chapters. 

How were the Flints procured ? 
It is probable that in many cases mere surface flints 
were picked up and worked as far as possible, but there is 
abundant evidence that prehistoric man had discovered, 
what the Brandon flint-knapper still knows, that flints 
from the depths of the earth can be more satisfactorily 
manipulated than those from the surface, and that those 
of a particular layer may be better than others found 
above or below them. In fact, at Brandon itself there are 
extensive traces of ancient quarrying for flints at the place 
known as Grime's Graves. These quarries were investi- 
gated by Canon Greenwell,^ who found that there were 
more than 250 pits, representing the shafts of quarries. 
That which he examined was 28 feet in diameter at its 
mouth, and 39 feet in depth. The first 13 feet of the shaft 
was through sand, below which the chalk was reached. 
The shaft then passed through a layer of flints, whose 
quality did not satisfy the excavators, until it reached 
another stratum, known nowadays as the "floor-stone," 
and used for the manufacture of gun-flints. In order to 
follow up this layer, galleries, 3 feet 6 inches in height, 
were made in the chalk, picks formed from the antlers of 
the red-deer being used for this purpose. The marks 
of these implements, as also of the cuts made by the edge 
of an axe of basalt, were clearly seen in the galleries, in 

1 Juurn. Eihnol. Soc, N.S., ii. p. 419. 


which were also found rude cups of chalk, which had 
apparently served the miners as lamps during their opera- 
tions. Similar quarries were discovered by Pitt-Rivers at 
Cissbury, and others have been found at Spiennes, in 
Belgium, in France, Egypt (Seton-Karr), and in other 

How can we know the uses of the implements ? 
It must be admitted that in a certain number of cases we 
have to guess at the use which was made of a given imple- 
ment, but in a surprisingly greater number there is no 
reason at all for doubt. This is largely due to the fact 
that the implements of the early man of this continent 
closely resemble the tools now, or lately, made and used 
by savage races. Thus the arrow-heads of stone made 
during the Neolithic and Bronze periods are the fellows 
of stone arrow-heads made in other parts of the world, and 
leave no doubt as to what they were intended for. A 
similar statement might be made about stone axes, par- 
ticularly those of a polished type, and, with perhaps some 
reservations, as to the implements which we speak of as 
scrapers and knives. Again, it has to be remembered 
that in many cases a given implement was not used for 
one purpose alone. It would be difficult to mention the 
various uses to which a sailor or a boy applies his pocket- 
knife; and, similarly, some at least of the stone implements 
must have been contrived to play a double part, or even 
several parts. Thus, for example, it is not difficult to see 
that the palaeolithic implement represented in Fig. 4 may 
have been a weapon, a knife for skinning animals, an 
ordinary scraper by which the skin when removed was 
cleaned, and a concave scraper by which meat was removed 
from the bones, or sticks rounded and smoothed. 


How can we tell their periods ? 

Some indication as to the manner in which information 
of this character is arrived at has been given in the previous 
chapter, and more will be given in those which are to follow. 
But a few points may here be dwelt upon. And first it 
should be mentioned that the locus is far more important 

FIG. 4. PAT.,i;OLn'H 
Caversham (j) 

than the shape or form in determining the relative date of 
an implement. To make this matter clearer, let us consider 
one or two cases. Near Torquay there is a celebrated cavern 
known as Kent's Hole or Cavern, which was first brought 
into notice, early in the last century, by the Rev. R. 
McEnery, a Catholic priest, and was afterwards fully ex- 
plored under the direction of the late Mr. Pengelly, whose 
name will always be associated with the discoveries made 


therein. Put as briefly as possible, the following layers 
were discovered in this cav^e, the order iz-iven beincf that 
of their discovery, i.e., the most recent are first men- 
tioned : — 

(i.) Blocks of limestone from a few pounds to one hundred 
tons, which had fallen from the roof. 

(ii.) The Black Mould. Composed almost entirely of de- 
cayed vegetable matter, and from three inches to one 
foot in depth. This layer contained Roman and pre- 
Roman pottery, bronze implements, and others of 
stone and bronze. 

(iii.) A floor of stalagmite from three inches to five feet in 

(iv.) The Black Band. Found in only one part of the cave. 
This consisted of charred wood and was four inches 
in depth. 

(v.) The Cave Earth. A light red loam. 

In (iii.), (iv.), and (v.) were found bones of the 
mammoth, rhinoceros, cave-lion, and cave-bear, 
flint flakes, and nuclei, and bone implements. 

(vi.) A second stalagmitic floor, twelve feet thick in places, 
containing bones of the cave-bear. 

(vii.) The Breccia, a dark-red sandy deposit, free from lime- 
stone, containing bones of the cave-bear, and rude 
flint and chert implements. 

Now supposing, as was the case here, that there has 
been no disturbance of these objects, but that they occupy 
the position in which they were first placed, then there 
can be no doubt that the implements in the Breccia are 
older than those above the second stalagmitic floor, and 
these again than those in the Black Mould. Where there 
is undisturbed stratification there is satisfactory evidence 
of difference of age, and when we find a certain type 
characteristic of low strata in various places we may 
begin, but cautiously, to associate with the same period 


other implements of similar character not found in relation 
of strata but by themselves. But we must be quite clear 
that we have to do with undisturbed strata, and must also 
bear in mind that extraordinary disturbances have taken 
place even in caverns as the result of floods. McKenny 
Hughes has given a vivid description of a flood on Ingle- 
borough which he himself witnessed, and of the results 
which it produced in the caves and their floors. *' Under- 
ground passages," he says, "high above the present 
water-channels, were swept clean by the body of water 
forced through them under enormous pressure. Caves 
that had been sealed up for years with barriers of stalag- 
mite, which one would have thought might have defied the 
rush of any flood, were burst open. Most of this debris — 
all, in fact, that was moved by the first rush of water— was 
carried down the valley. Some remained about the mouth 
and some in embayed corners in the caves. Here we saw 
fragments of stalagmitic floors, mixed up with debris 
washed in from the swallow-holes above. Some might 
have seen here evidence that, after the cave had been 
formed and occupied and gently filled with earth and 
coated and partitioned by stalactite and stalagmite, there 
came an age of flood — perhaps of submergence — when 
the old deposits were re-sorted, the old floors broken up, 
and that the cave then entered upon another phase of its 
history. How different the facts ! It was all over in three 
hours." Another caution must be offered in connection 
with the facility with which small objects are able to work 
their way down through heat-cracks in the earth, through 
mice-holes and other burrows, and through the pipes left 
by the decay of roots. In all cases of juxtaposition of 
strange objects these points should be borne in mind, 
and, if possible, a search made, to see if the contiguity 
of the objects can be accounted for in any of these ways. 
To take another case. Let us suppose that bronze and 


stone Implements are found together in an undisturbed 
tumulus : is this any evidence that they were made at the 
same time ? Not the least, for the stone implement may 
have been a treasured heirloom laid with some specially 
respected or beloved dead one, or it may have been placed 
there from superstitious motives, on account of its anti- 
quity. Such a collocation only tells us that the tumulus 
was not earlier than the bronze period. It is on other 
evidence that we have to rely for the statement that stone 
implements continued to be made during the bronze period. 
For example : if we find with bronze or copper remains 
not merely flint implements but also cores and chips and 
all the evidences of manufacture, then we may reasonably 
conclude that the two forms of manufacture were proceed- 
ing at the same time. Or, again, we reason that stone 
arrow-heads were used and made during the bronze period 
from the facts that they are constantly associated with inter- 
ments of that character, and that bronze arrow-heads are 
objects almost unknown. The reason for this is not far 
to seek ; the arrow-head was a thing very likely to be lost, 
and it was much cheaper to lose one of stone than one of 
the far more valuable metal. 

A further indication as to period is the character of the 
implement. Compare the eoliths in Fig. 10 with the Scan- 
dinavian dagger in Fig. i. The probability is that the 
dagger is much later than the other object, the probability, 
that is, from the shape alone. But from this point of view 
we have no real indication, for the two might quite well 
have been made at the same time, one by a tyro, the other 
by a skilled artist ; one for a temporary use, with the idea 
that it would be immediately thrown away, and need have 
no particular labour wasted over it, the other with the 
intention of becoming the treasured possession of some 
connoisseur of the period. Hence undisturbed position 
in strata, or in connection with the remains of animals 


extinct after a definite geological period, are good indica- 
tions of date. Indications from position require to be 
checked by a careful examination of the strata with a 
view to ascertaining whether they have been disturbed or 
not, and indications from shape, except in certain direc- 
tions, which will be mentioned in later chapters, must be 
dealt with in a cautious manner.^ 

Of what kinds of stone are the implements made ? 

Of a very great variety, must be the answer to this 
question. For choice, in this country, flint, as being a 
hard stone, yet one easily worked and capable of being 
fashioned into many useful implements. It is clear that it 
was carried from places where it naturally occurred to other 
districts, either in a worked or unworked condition. Hence 
it may actually have been an article of commerce at a very 
early period. Where flint was unattainable some other 
hard stone was employed, for example, quartzite. A 
palaeolithic implement of this substance was found in the 
gravels of the Rea, near Birmingham, by the late Mr. 
Landon, and other implements of the same kind have 
been found in the caves at Creswell Crags. Of smaller 
implements of the same kind in the collection of Mr. Moore 
of Tutnal may be mentioned an arrow-head, which is very 
neatly made from a split pebble of quartzite, one of the 
myriads of this kind found in the western drift all round 
Birmingham. In parts of England where that substance 
is found, chert is employed for the manufacture of imple- 
ments, and large worked fragments (see Fig. 5) have been 
found in quantities in the Broom gravel pit (Dorset), as 
well as other implements of flint. 

Serpentine, greenstone, diorite, chalcedony, and jasper, 
are amongst the kinds of stone utilised in different parts 
of the world, and to these, amongst many other varieties 
of rock, may be added that very beautiful substance, jade. 

1 For the value of mineral condition in determining the relative ag-e of stone 
implements see a paper by S. H. Warren, Geol. Mag., Dec. iv. ix, 453, p. 97. 



No implements of this nature have, I believe, been found 
in Britain, but many have been discovered on the 
Continent. Dr. Munro^ estimates that in all Europe 

Broom (5) 

500 to 600 worked objects in nephrite, 300 to 400 in jadeite, 
and about 200 in chloromelanite have been discovered. In 
the station of Murach, on Lake Constance alone, nearly 

^ Lake Divcllings of Europe. 


500 implements have been found with 154 cliips and sawn 
fragments, whilst the stations on this lake have altogether 
supplied more than 1,000 jade implements. Implements 
of this substance have also been found in Moravia and 
Hungary.^ There has been a considerable discussion as 
to the source of the jade, since it was supposed that this 
mineral did not occur in Europe. Rudler,'- having in- 
vestigated the matter, admits that the known occurrences 
of nephrite and jadeite in Europe are as yet very limited. 
He points out, however, that discoveries of these minerals 
have occasionally been made in Europe and America, 
thus proving that the substances are not so limited 
geographically as was formerly supposed. He thinks it 
probable that, if searched for, they will be found among 
the metamorphic rocks of Europe, and concludes that the 
balance of evidence is in favour of the view that jade is 
indigenous in the countries where the implements have 
been found. A further discussion of the question, par- 
ticularly as it relates to America, will be found in Wilson's 
work on Preliistoric ArL^ Of course, as has already been 
hinted, materials have at an early period been brought 
from one part of the Continent to another. I have myself 
a knife-shaped implement apparently of the beeswax flint 
of Pressigny, in France, which was found in a Swiss 
Lake Village. 

Before leaving this part of the subject it may be noted, 
in confirmation of the statement already made, that primitive 
man adapts the materials at hand to his necessities, that 
various other substances have been used instead of stone 
in different parts of the world for purposes for which stone 
has been used elsewhere. Thus the inhabitants of the New 
Hebrides make axe-heads of the hinge-part of the shell of 

' L' Anthropologic , i. 104. 

"Journal of Anthropological Society, ser. i. xx. 332. 

^ Published by the Smithsonian Institution, p. 455. 



tridacna, a huge bivalve, which resemble closely the stone 
celts of the polished stone period in Ireland and elsewhere. 
The natives of Australia make admirable arrow-heads out 
of glass bottles, and also out of the insulators of telegraph 
wires. Indeed, it is said that they are so fond of the 
latter, and have caused so much inconvenience by annex- 
ing them, that it has been found wise to leave a number of 
fragments of broken 
bottles at the bottom 
of the telegraph poles, 
in order to provide the 
material which would 
otherwise be sought at 
its summit. Specimens 
of arrow - heads made 
from both of these 
materials may be seen 
in the Pitt-Rivers 
Museum at Oxford, 
and with them the 
simple tools by which 
they were worked. Fig. 

6 shows an arrow-head 
of glass and the imple- 
ments with which it 
was made, and Fig. 

7 the hands of the 

Australian in the act of making it. These points are 
mentioned to illustrate the statement that prehistoric man, 
in all probability, had other implements than those of 
stone, some of which, being of a more perishable nature, 
have not survived until the present day. This would not 
apply to such things as shells, but to objects of wood, and 
perhaps of some other materials. 

FIG. 6 





How were the Stones worked? 
This is a large question, and those desirous of fuller 
information than can be given here may be referred to the 
early chapters of Sir John Evans' work on Ancient Stone 
Implements.'^ Some statement of the various processes 
of which we have knowledge must, however, be made, 
and we may commence with some observations by Holmes,^ 
who has made a special study of the subject. "The 

FIG. 7 



shaping processes," he writes, " by means of which stone 
was made to assume artificial forms adapted to human 
needs, are varied and ingenious, and their mastery is of 
the greatest importance to all primitive peoples. These 
processes are distinguished by such terms as breaking, 
flaking, cutting, drilling, scraping, pecking, grinding, 
and polishing. All are purely mechanical ; none are 
chemical, save a possible use of fire to induce changes 

^ An exhaustive account of the instances of manufacture of flint imple- 
ments recorded amongst savage people, with references, is given by Coffey, 
Proc. Royal Soc. of Antiquaries of Ireland, igo8, p. l6o. See also North 
Queensland Ethnography, Bulletin No. 7, " Domestic Implements, Arts, and 
Manufactures," by Walter E. Roth. 

2 " Stone Implements of the Potomac. Chesapeake Tidewater Province." 
Fifteenth Annual Report of the American Bureau of Ethnology. 


in the rock in some parts of the quarry work. A wide 
range of operations is represented, and these may be 
conveniently arranged in four groups: (i.) fracturing^ 
represented by the terms breaking, flaking, and chipping ; 
(ii.) incising, including cutting, picking, and scraping ; 
(iii.) batterings including such acts as bruising, pecking, 
and hammering ; (iv.) abradings as in rubbing, drilling, 
boring, sawing, and polishing. These acts are employed 
according to the nature of the stone or the results desired ; 
as, for example, fracture is employed where the stone to 
be shaped is brittle like flint, jasper, or quartz ; incision is 
employed where the stone is relatively soft, such as soap- 
stone, serpentine, and the like ; battering is applied to 
tough materials, capable of resisting the shocks of per- 
cussion, like granitic rocks and many of the eruptives. 
Nearly all varieties are capable of being shaped by grind- 
ing and rubbing." Certain of these processes, especially 
in relation to British implements, must now be considered 
a little more closely. Chipping is the process of removing 
fragments from a piece of flint by blows given with another 
stone. It is obvious that the operation may have one of 
two ends in view. The object may be to dress a stone 
weapon, that is, to shape the central mass of the selected 
piece of stone into an implement, the flakes knocked off 
being worthless, or at least of secondary importance. By 
such processes were produced the palaeolithic implements, 
and, generally speaking, the class of implements known 
as celts. Or, on the other hand, the object may have 
been to detach flakes from the central mass, which flakes 
would afterwards, either as they were detached, or after 
secondary working, be utilisable as implements. Here 
the central mass, or "core," is the worthless, or com- 
paratively worthless, portion of the original stone. Fig. 8 
from Holmes' paper illustrates the first process in the 
operation of shaping a pebble. The process in con- 


nection with a piece of flint would not be quite the same, 
and has already been indicated in connection with the 
bulb of percussion. It is obvious that instead of striking 
the stone to be shaped with another, the same result may 
in some cases have been attained by striking the stone 
to be shaped against another lump of stone. Or again, 
where it was desired to remove very small flakes, a punch 
of some kind may have been employed between the stone 
to be shaped and the hammer. 
Flaking is a process which is 
allied to chipping, but the 
term is perhaps better con- 
fined to the finer work, which 
may have been executed by 
pressure or by nipping off 
fragments of the stone to be 
worked. The Scandinavian 
implement (Fig. i), or the 
Egyptian (Fig. 2), must first 
have been roughed out of 
masses of flint by the method 
of chipping. Then when the 
desired shape had been arrived 
at, the further elaboration was 
obtained by a more delicate 
process. At least, this seems 
probable, for, as a matter of fact, we do not know how 
this extremely beautiful " ripple-flaking" was produced. 

A few instances of how flaking by pressure has been 
executed by primitive races will show how the same 
process may have been carried out in prehistoric times. 
The Esquimaux flake their arrows by means of an in- 
strument with a handle of fossil ivory and a tongue or 
blade made of a slip from the horn of a reindeer and 
inserted in it. The piece of chert from which the arrow- 

FIG. 8 




head is to be made is placed on a block of wood in which 
a spoon-shaped cavity is cut. Then the flaker is pressed 
gently along the edge of the stone, alternately on either 
side and in a vertical direction. By this means fragments 
are removed until the desired shape of the head is attained. 
Fig. 9 from Holmes' paper will explain the process of 
removing splinters by pressure in a less elaborate manner 
than that just described. It is possible that some of the 
implements afterwards to be mentioned under the name 
of ''fabricators" may 
have been used for 
purposes of pressure- 
flaking, though in 
more recent times an 
instrument more elas- 
tic in its character 
seems to have been 
employed. Such tools 
may quite well have 
been utilised also by 
prehistoric man. 

Pressure properly 
applied is able to de- 
tach quite large flakes 
from a central core of 

hard stone like obsidian. The beautiful flakes of this sub- 
stance, said to have been used for sacrificial purposes in 
Mexico, seem to have been thus produced. Sir John Evans 
quotes a description of this operation from Torquemada, 
which may here be reproduced. "One of these Indian 
workmen sits down upon the ground and takes a piece of this 
black stone, about eight inches long, or rather more, and 
as thick as one's leg, or rather less, and cylindrical ; they 
have a stick as large as the shaft of a lance, and three 
cubits or more in length ; and at the end of it they fasten 

FIG. 9 



firmly another piece of wood eight inches long, to give 
more weight to this part ; then, pressing their naked feet 
together, they hold the stone as with a pair of pincers 
or the vice of a carpenter's bench. They take the stick 
(which is cut off smooth at the end) with both hands, and 
set it well home against the edge of the front of the stone, 
which is also cut smooth in that part ; and then they press 
it against their breast, and with the force of the pressure 
there flies off a knife, with its point and edge on each 
side, as neatly as if one were to make them of a turnip 
with a sharp knife, or of iron in the fire." Finally the 
glass and earthenware arrows made by the native Aus- 
tralians are worked with a pebble, and the fine tooling 
is efi'ected by nipping off bits from the edge with the 
aid of a notch in the broken shank-bone of a sheep. This 
process is illustrated in Fig. 7, which is taken from a 
drawing in the Pitt-Rivers Museum, made on the spot 
from observation of the workman at his task. It may 
be added that many experiments have been made in recent 
times on methods of flaking and otherwise working flint 
by Sir John Evans and others, and will be found de- 
scribed in his book. Flint Jack's forgeries, generally 
rather rude in character, are tolerably well known, whilst 
the more artistic efforts of a modern Brandon workman 
may be seen in various museums, and the work of the 
present curator of the Pitt-Rivers Museum, could he have 
had the use of his present tools, would have won him a 
high place amongst prehistoric artificers. 

Grinding and polishing were effected upon fixed, and 
not rotatory, stones, and the rubbing was done lengthwise, 
as the striation shows. Smviug seems to have been rarely 
practised in this country, but has been used in the case 
of Swiss and other axe-heads, perhaps with a flint flake. 
Possibly sand and water may also have been used in the 
operation. Or strips of wood or bone may have been used 


with sand. Borings Sir John Evans thinks, was carried out 
in various ways: (i.) By chiselHng, or picking with a sharp 
stone, (ii.) By grinding with a soHd grinder, probably of 
wood, (iii.) By grinding with a tubular grinder, probably 
of ox-horn, (iv.) By drilling with a stone drill, (v.) By 
drilling with a metallic drill. With regard to the use of 
these processes at different periods. Dr. Blackmore says : 
" Eoliths are hacked, palceoliths are chipped, and neoliths 
are flaked. Hacking, chipping, and flaking are the charac- 
teristics of the three stone periods." And Sir John Evans 
sums up his account of the different processes by saying : 

"(i) In the Palceolithic, River-gravel, or Drift period im- 
plements were fashioned by chipping only, and not ground 
or polished. The material used in Europe was, moreover, 
as far as at present known, mainly flint, chert, or quartzite. 

"(2) In the Reindeer or Cavern period of Central France, 
though grinding was almost, if not quite, unused, except 
in finishing bone instruments, yet greater skill in flaking 
flint and in working up flakes into serviceable tools was 
exhibited. In some places, as at Laugerie-Haute, surface 
chipping is found on the flint arrow-heads, and cup-shaped 
recesses have been worked in other hard stones than flint, 
though no other stones have been used for cutting purposes. 

''(3) In the Neolithic, or Surface Stone period of Western 
Europe, other materials besides flint were largely used for 
the manufacture of hatchets ; grinding at the edge and on 
the surface was generally practised, and the art of flaking 
flint by pressure from the edge was probably known. The 
stone axes, at least in Britain, were rarely perforated. 

"(4) In the Bronze period such stone implements, with 
the exception of mere flakes and scrapers, as remained in 
use were, as a rule, highly finished, many of the axes being 
perforated and of graceful form, and some of the flint 
arrow-heads evincing the highest degree of manual skill." 


IN the opinion of some, though, it must be admitted, 
not of all, competent to pronounce an opinion upon 
stone implements, the oldest objects of this character 
are those known as eoliths. These objects, having been 
originally found on the chalk plateau of Kent, are some- 
times also called plateau implements, but the name which 
has been set at the head of this chapter is that which they 
usually receive, and that which will be adhered to in this 
book. In the case at the Blackmore Museum containing 
the fine series of these objects they are defined as " stones 
having evidence of use and often shaped by use ; all 
showing human intelligence in the selection of suitable 
size and form." This definition, framed so as to include 
even the rudest forms, must now be somewhat developed. 
In the first place, then, as mentioned in the last chapter, 
eoliths are hacked, not chipped, still less flaked. That 
is, the splinters and fragments which were removed from 
the stones were removed by men who were not familiar 
with the peculiar property possessed by flints of fracturing 
in thin flakes if the proper direction be given and the right 
amount of force applied to the blow. The trimming given 
to the implements is very slight. It has generally been 
made on the edges of rude natural flints taken from an old 
flint drift. The secondary fragments removed for pur- 
poses of trimming have been taken off perpendicularly to 




the plane surfaces of the stone, and have the appearance 
of having been hacked off, perhaps by means of the small 
hammer-stones found with other varieties of eoliths. 
These last- mentioned forms may be taken as a type of 

FIG. 10. EOi.irus 
Alderlniry (J) 

the simpler kind of eolith, which was really a natural 
stone used for certain purposes and showing signs of 
having so been used. Of these Sir J. Prestvvich^ has 
written : '' Besides the implements of definite patterns, 

^ Journal of Anthwp. Inst., xxi. 246. 


there is a larg-e, probably the larger, number which, 
though not the result of chance, show no special design. 
Amongst these are the natural flints which have been 
selected for use as the hammer or trimming stones, the 
result being that the flint has become chipped at the ends 
or round the sides undesignedly, but still in a manner 
that could not have resulted from natural wear. In a 
similar way, some are roughened at the end like the large 
pebbles or balls used at a later Neolithic period, exhibiting 
patches of rough abraded surface, the result of repeated 
blows." Again, these stones are almost invariably stained 
a deep warm, brown colour, in this respect resembling 
the flints of the drift in which they are found. This colour 
spreads over the worked as well as the unworked parts, 
though it may be lighter in shade on the former than on 
the latter. Signs of considerable wear are not wanting 
in the rounding and blunting of the working edges, a 
result, evidently, of much rolling and knocking about. 

Considering their extreme rudeness, it is perhaps not 
surprising that considerable doubt and even much scepti- 
cism has been shown as to their being genuine works 
of the hands of man. This point must now be considered. 
In the first place it will be admitted by all that one would 
expect the earliest tools used by man to be either natural 
objects or a very slight advance upon such objects. This 
is not a description which could be applied to the imple- 
ments of palaeolithic type. Mr. Bell^ well says: "The 
palaeolithic implement is, on the face of it, a very advanced 
and artistic production. Neither in shape nor in work- 
manship does it show any indications of a prentice hand, 
and far from being the firstborn of human tools, must re- 
present the last stage in a long series of artistic develop- 
ment." But though this is true enough, it does not 

^ Journal of Anthrop. Inst., xxiii. 2G6. 


follow that in the eoliths we have these early rude imple- 
ments. Their recognition depends mainly on the fact 
that they present a definite series of simple but well- 
defined types. If one found here and there a stone shaped 
as eoliths are shaped, it might be difficult to claim for it 
that it was the work of man's hands, but when large 
numbers are discovered, belonging, as will shortly be 
shown, to one or another of several simple but very 
clearly marked types, it becomes more difficult to enter- 
tain any hesitation as to their real nature. But a long 
series must be examined, such a series as is exhibited 
at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, or, 
better still, such a series as is to be seen in the Blackmore 
Museum. Having examined these, the hill at Alderbury, 
close by, should be ascended, and the implements sought 
out in situ. 

When a series such as that just mentioned is examined 
it becomes clear that two special objects seem to have been 
in the mind of the manufacturers. In many cases the idea 
has been to work in the side of the implement a semi- 
circular notch, looking, as one describer has put it, like a 
piece bitten out of a slice of cake (see Fig. 10). The result 
attained is similar to that achieved by the makers of the 
" hollow " or concave scraper of the Neolithic time. The 
appearance of the notch in all implements of this type is 
wonderfully similar, a fact which alone renders it im- 
probable that it could have been otherwise formed than 
by the hands of man. Moreover, the same notch may be 
found worked in similar manner in other materials than 
flint, e.g. greensand. The same notch may also be found 
in palaeolithic implements (see Fig. 4), where it seems to 
have fulfilled some purpose secondary to the main purpose 
of the implement, just as a button-hook, for example, may 
be added to a pocket-knife, the main object of which is to 
provide its owner with an implement of a cutting nature. 


A hollow, notched implement of the kind mentioned was 
evidently, whatever may have been its purpose, for as to 
this we can only make guesses, a very useful tool in the 
estimation of primitive man. In the eolithic type we seem 
to possess the earliest form yet known. It was handed 
down in the paleolithic implement, when man had learnt 
to do better things than merely hack stone. And finally 
it developed into the concave scrapers of the neolithic 
form, of which, perhaps, the most remarkable are the 
exceedingly thin and delicate examples found in Ireland. 
In other cases the idea of the artificer has been to work the 
implement for a point, a boring-tool being perhaps in his 
mind (see Fig. lo). Sometimes the point has been the sole 
object, but more often motives of economy in time seem to 
have led to its combination with the hollow — again the old 
story of the pocket-knife. These notches were sometimes 
arranged (as in Fig. lo) on either side of a long pointed 
implement, or on the broad side of a piece of flint, with a 
comparatively small point between them, the whole outline 
then resembling that of a Cupid's bow or ^~'. The 
former of these is the double-edged scraper, the latter, 
the bow-scraper of the South Kensington classification. 
Besides these, the most common forms, there are other 
types of eoliths, such as hammer-stones and punches, 
bruised at the place where they have been used for pecking 
fragments off other pieces of flint. There is also a beak- 
shaped scraper or pick, and other forms included in the 
collection at South Kensington are broad flakes with 
trimmed edges, pointed implements of the spear-head 
form, and ovoid Abbeville types. As already mentioned, 
there is still a doubt as to the geological position of these 
implements, for unfortunately, so far, no fossils, shells, 
bones, or teeth have been discovered in the gravels con- 
taining them. By many, perhaps by most geologists, 
the gravels have been assigned to the Pliocene age. 


but others refuse to place them later than the mid- 
Pleistocene period. 

It cannot be said that since the first edition of this book 
appeared the question of eoliths has become in any way- 
more settled. Boule,^ who has always disbelieved in 
eoliths as arte-facts, has described a number of chipped 
flints closely resembling eoliths in their character, which 
are produced by a machine possessing two sets of inter- 
locking iron teeth, used at Mantes for the purpose of 
crushing up chalk (in which flints are embedded) for 
manufacturing cement. This observation clearly shows 
that eolith-like flints can be produced without any inten- 
tion of forming implements. On the other hand, it 
scarcely seems a proof, as Boule and others assert, that 
all eoliths are produced by natural means, since the 
clashing of two sets of iron teeth in the machine is hardly 
comparable with any operation of nature, and, after all, 
not altogether unlike those hacking processes by which 
eoliths are supposed to have been produced. A more 
important observation is that of Mr. Worthington Smith,- 
who has shown that flakes extremely like those detached 
from eoliths may also be detached by and pressure ex- 
ercised by small pebbles in a bed of drift clay. S. H. 
Warren^ has also published a long and important paper 
on the ''Origin of Eolithic Flints" by land causes, espe- 
cially by the foundering of drifts, in which he concludes 
that we may have eoliths of any age and that they may 
be battered by concussion or chipped by percussion. The 
chippings may be the work of water abrasion in a swift 
stream, or by pressure in the soil, or by wave action, the 
drag of ice, and the wear and tear on the surface ground. 
On the other hand, a number of other authorities, includ- 
ing the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall,* still retain a thorough 

' n Anthropologie, 1905, 257. ^ Man, 1907, 60. 

^ Journ, Anthropological Inst., vol. viii. 337. ■* Man, 1907, 53. 


belief in eoliths as arte-facts. The question therefore 
must be regarded as still absolutely unsettled.^ 

Palseoliths. — As to the genuineness of objects of this 
class no person entertains any doubt, so that words need 
not be wasted in proving that they are of human manu- 
facture. They fall into two categories, not from their 
shape so much as from the places in which they are 
found, namely, River-drift and Cave implements. As 
there seems some probability, though the question is 
by no means settled, that the former may be the older, 
it will be well to commence with them. As their name 
implies, they are found in gravels deposited by rivers, 
and by rivers too, forming parts of the present drainage 
system of the country, though often at a very much 
higher level than the existing stream. The distance of 
the higher gravels from the stream by which they were 
originally deposited is some measure of the time which 
has elapsed since the gravels were laid down and the 
implements washed into them. That the implements 
have been in the gravels from the time of their original 
deposition is shown by the fact that they and the un- 
worked flints amongst which they are discovered are 
stained in a similar manner. Moreover, the surfaces of 

1 In addition the following- may be consulted on the subject of eoliths : 
Prestvvich, Controverted Questions of Geology^ 1S95 ; ih. Journ. of Anthrop. 
Soc, xxi. 246; Harrison, ib. ib. 263; Jones, R., ib. ser. ii., i. 53; ib. 
Natural Science, v. 32; Bullen, Victoria Inst. Trans., June 18, 1900; ib. 
Geol. Mag., Dec. iv. vol. x. no. 465 (with full bibliography); Darbishire 
Mem. and Proc. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc. 1901-2 ; Kennard, Natural 
Science, 1898, 34. For the discovery of similar implements near Pretoria, 
South Africa, see 'L€\i\\., Journ. of Afithrop. Soc, s. ii., i. 258. See also 
MacCurdy, Man, 1906, 28; Obermaier, Arch. f. Anthrop., 1906, 75; Ober- 
maier, corr. Blatt. d. Dts. Ges. f. Anthrop. Ethn. u. Urges., May, 1905, 
pp. 50, 63, 108, in which will be found a full account of the discussion of the 
eolith question by German authorities ; Deecke-Greifswald, ib. April, 1905. 
See also the discussion in Rice Holmes' Aiicient Britain, p. 26. 




the flint tools have often been greatly worn, all the sharp- 
ness having been taken off the chipped portions by rolling 
in water with other stones, gravel, sand, and other 
materials. This is particularly the case with 
Worthington Smith calls 
the most ancient imple- 
ments (see Fig. ii). A 
caveat must be put in, 
however, as to regarding 
these abraded implements 
as the oldest, for a more 
ancient implement may 
have a fresher look, if by 
chance it has been sub- 
jected to less rolling about 
than its younger brother. 
But allowing, as is highly 
probable, that these are 
the oldest implements, what 
is their character? They 
fall into two classes, classes 
to which, by the way, most 
palceolithic implements be- 
long, the pick-shaped and 
the ovate. The former class 
consists of implements with 

a broad, heavy, usually unworked butt or base, more 
or less comfortably held in the hand, for it seems that 
these implements were not hafted, but used as we now 
see them. From this butt the tool tapers to a more or 
less elegantly shaped point. In Fig. 12 there is an 
example of a very beautifully shaped implement of this 
kind from the Broom pit. It is of the pick-variety, but 
is so sharply trimmed that it was probably intended to act 
also, if not primarily, as a knife. The implements of the 



G. smith's "oldest type") 

Farnham (}) 


most ancient type resemble this in general outline, but are 
clumsier and, of course, much more abraded than this 
example. The ovate or rude oval form, of which an 
example of the abraded type is shown in Fig. ii, is 
trimmed all round to an edge, and has no untrimmed 
butt, nor is it provided with a special pointed extremity. 
These oldest implements, says Mr. Smith, "are known at 
once by their great amount of abrasion, their grey-brown, 
deep brown-ochreous, or chocolate colour, and their rude 
make." They had, he thinks, already attained enormous 
antiquity at the time when tools of lesser age were made 
and deposited in the same river gravels in which these 
older ones are now found. Speaking of a much abraded, 
dull, and deeply ochreous implement found near Canter- 
bury, he says that there are chips upon it made at the 
time when the implementiferous gravels of Canterbury 
were laid down, which chipped parts are lustrous and non- 
ochreous. He also believes that the eoliths of Ightham 
are no older than this class of implement, so that perhaps 
they may have been constructed at the same time. But at 
present we can do little but surmise about the earliest tools, 
since there remain so many problems unsolved in connec- 
tion with them. The other implements from the River- 
drift, those, that is, of a later period perhaps, and certainly 
of less abraded character and non-ochreous patination, 
may be divided into the following groups, though the 
order in which they are placed does not in any way indi- 
cate any sequence or relation of age. 

(i.) Flakes, which may or may not show some traces of 
chipping at the edges. These may be {a) external, i.e., 
the first chips struck off a block of flint, showing, there- 
fore, the crust on one side ; {b) ridged, of triangular 
section, extremely rare ; (c) flat, commoner than the 
last ; this variety presents generally shorter, thicker, 
and broader examples than the later or surface period ; 



{d) polygonal, the commonest variety. Flakes of all 
kinds seem to have been used for cutting and scraping 
purposes. Some flakes have been provided with a 
serrated edge, reminding one of the flint saws of the later 
age, and probably intended for a similar purpose.^ 

(ii.) Scrapers. Implements in which the end or the side 
has been trimmed to a bevelled edge, generally semi- 
circular when the work is at the 
end of the implement. These 
tools, which are amongst the 
commonest in the neolithic series, 
are rare in the River-drift, though 
they are met with amongst the 
objects found in the caves. 

(iii.) The pointed or pear- 
shaped picks, of which mention 
has already been made (see 
Figs. 12 and 13). 

(iv.) Ovate or sharp-rimmed 
implements. These are 
found of all sizes, from 
comparatively small im- 
plements to the large flat 
objects of the Broom type 
(see Fig. 5). It is a 
curious point about these 
that if they are held up 
so that the edge can be 
examined it will be found 
to present a sinuous out- 
line instead of a straight 
one. This sinuosity is so 
arranged as to give the 
outline the form of a long 
s, but reversed, thus }, 

Broom (§) 

' Man, 1903, 156. 


the process of manufacture the stone has been so shaped 
as to resemble somewhat the twisted paddle of a screw- 
propeller. It was at one time thought that there was 
some purpose in this peculiar conformation, but it seems 
probable that it was simply the result of the method 

adopted of chipping the stone, 
and had no other significance. 
In the case of some pal£Eoliths 
recently discovered at Ipswich,^ 
it is stated that a fine oval im- 
plement shows signs of having 
been worked for hafting, as 
also does a smaller chisel- 
shaped form. This is unusual, 
for, so far, the evidence seems 
to point to the tools of this 
period having been used in the 
hand and withouthafts. Pigmy 
implements of the Palceolithic 
period, or Palaeolithic micro- 
liths, have been described and 
figured by Rev. H. G. O. 
Kendall- and also by Miss 
Layard at the British Associa- 
tion meeting in Cambridge 
in 1904. Similar tools have 
been found on the Continent. 
Although the implements 
now under discussion are 
called River-drift, and are found in river gravels, it is 
quite clear that they have been washed down into their 
present positions, and did not originate there. There 
seem to have been regular manufactories of these imple- 
ments, and one of them has been most carefully investigated 
and described by Mr. Worthington Smith. ^ The palaeo- 

St. Acheul (5) 

* Nature, May 22, 1902. - Alan, 1908, 53. ^ Man, the Primceval Savage. 


lithic workshop in question was situated at Caddington, 
near Dunstable. It lay by the side of a pool or lake on a 
chalk hill, covered with brick-earth, and its level was from 
four to thirteen feet below the modern surface, /.c, that 
amount of soil had been deposited since the period when 
some tribe of early inhabitants of this country sat down by 
the pool to make weapons and tools for themselves out of 
flint. Chalk-with-flints, red clay-with-flints, and boulder- 
clay were in their neighbourhood on higher ground, which 
has now been worn away and has disappeared. 

At certain spots in the neighbourhood of this pool and 
others flints were manufactured into implements. *' It 
is at these spots," says Mr. Smith, "that the sharp thin 
flakes occur in hundreds, together with implements finished 
and unfinished. It is curious that perhaps only some four 
or five yards off, and on the same old land surface, not 
a single worked stone or flake can be found." The old 
land surface is naturally represented by a line in a section 
of the brick clay, in the midst of which it is placed, and it 
appears that this particular band has long been known 
and avoided by the men engaged in getting the clay, not 
merely because the stones injure the bricks if included in 
them, but quite as much because they dread the thin keen- 
edged artificially struck flakes, which suddenly cut their 
fingers down to the bone. Here we have to do with the 
product as it was turned out, and as keen and sharp as 
the day it was made, not worn and rolled by the action of 
water. By dint of unwearied patience and great labour 
Mr. Smith was able to prove to a demonstration that the 
spot which he was examining was the genuine manufac- 
tory, for he was able to piece together the fragments 
which had been chipped off by the original workmen and 
restore the block either wholly or entirely to its first state. 
An example of this is shown in Fig. 14, which Mr. Smith 
has kindly permitted me to reproduce. The figure on the 


right shows the finished implement, that on the left the 
pieces which were removed in its construction. In this 
figure, then, we get the appearance of the block before its 
artificer had begun to work upon it. In one of his attempts 

FIG. 14 

Caddinglon (J) 

at piecing together Mr. Smith constructed what one might 
perhaps call a shell of flint with a central cavity, the 
materials of which he had not discovered. Into this cavity 
liquid plaster-of-Paris was poured. The cast thus ob- 
tained presented all the features of a core, and represented 
the missing mass of flint perhaps transported from Cad- 
dington to some other part of the country. Another 
interesting example of a palaeolithic workshop floor has 
been found near Ealing, and extends over an area of about 
forty feet square.^ 

^ Proc. Soc. Antiquaries, s. ii., xi. 211. 


Cave Implements. — The cave is such a natural habita- 
tion, ready-made for the occupation of man, that it is in 
no way surprising that we should find so many relics 
of the past races of this and other countries in them. 
Sometimes these grottoes are true caverns or recesses in 
limestone produced by a river outside or by the action 
of subterranean streams, in which cases long winding 
galleries may have been formed, an intricate system of 
chambers being the result. Or it may be that the natural 
agencies of water and frost have wasted away the lower 
and perhaps softer strata of a cliff, leaving those above 
to overhang the ground. Such rock-shelters, as they 
have been called, in order to distinguish them from the 
cave proper, could obviously be with ease converted into 
a place of habitation for man, and, as a matter of fact, 
were so utilised, as in the case of Bruniquel in France. 
Although the term cave-implements is now being applied 
to objects belonging to the older stone period, it must 
not be supposed that the caves were only places of habita- 
tion at that time. On the contrary, as has already been 
shown in the cases of Kent's Cavern and the grotto of 
Mas d'Azil, successive layers of objects have been found 
showing that successive generations, if not races, have 
made a home within their walls. At times it is possible 
that these races may have been separated from one another 
by long intervals. We can lay little stress upon the 
rapidity of the deposition of stalagmite, as affording a 
geological or archceological clock, since conditions of 
various kinds may accelerate or retard the process. At 
Kent's Cavern one " Robert Hedges of Ireland " inscribed 
his name with the date 1688. The carving, when first 
discovered by Mr. McEnery in 1825, was "glazed over 
and partly effaced." At the present time there is about 
^\jth of an inch of stalagmite over it. At this rate of 
progress it would take about 4,000 years to form an inch, 


and in parts of tlu- cavern the stalagmite floor, one of 
two floors, is twelve feet thick. On the other hand, 
Professor McKenny Hughes says that "when the great 
storm of 1S72 broke up the floors at the mouth of Ingle- 
borough Cavern I saw modern ginger-beer bottles which 
had been buried a foot deep in the stalagmite." As a 
matter of fact, Boyd Dawkins found that from 1845-1877 
the stalagmite had increased at the rate of y^j" per 
annum. But at the most rapid rate of progress one 
must allow that a very long period must have been 
covered by the time necessary for the construction of 
the floors of Kent's Cavern, in other cases the occupa- 
tion may well have been more continuous, as at Mas 
d'Azil, where the continuity seems to have been mainly 
broken by occasional inundations of the neighbouring 
river, inundations which may have driven from their 
abode its inhabitants but for a comparatively short time, 
perhaps even only a few days. 

The walls of some European caves have been decorated 
in Palaeolithic times with illustrations of the animals of 
the period. One of the most celebrated of these is the 
cave of La Mouthe in the Dordogne, France,^ where 
hearths of different periods, Palseolithic and Neolithic, 
have been discovered. Here are seven designs or panels 
representing (i) the bison, Bos prisciis, \vith a much ex- 
aggerated hump ; (2) ox ; (3) reindeer ; (4) wild goat ; 
(5) mammoth ; (6 and 7) horses. In this cavern was also 
found a lamp of red sandstone, on which was a well- 
executed head of a goat. The annexed drawing (Fig. 15) 
of the mammoth is an example from the walls of the 
cave of Combarelles,'^ w^here there are no less than 109 
figures representing other kinds of animals. Other caves 

' L' Anthropologic., viii. 592; ix. 596; xii. 670. Bull, ei Mdm. Soc. d'An- 
throp. de Paris, ser. v. t. iv. 191. 

'■^ Bull, et Mihn. Soc. d' Anihrop. dc Paris, ser. v. t. iii. 527. 



with pictures on the walls are those of Pair-non-Pair 
(Bordeaux), Chabot (Ardoche), Font-de-Gaume, Les 
Eyzies, BernifoP (Dordogne), and Altamira- (Spain). 
No objects of this kind have as yet been found in any 
cavern in these islands. The caves having been inhabited 
by so many generations of people, if not by different 

Wall of grotto of Combarelles (I) 

peoples, it will be understood that a great variety of 
objects has been discovered within them, belonging to 
the Paleolithic, Neolithic, and later periods, in fact, in 
the case of the Victoria Cave at Settle, down to the 
time when the native Britons fled before the face of 
the invading Saxon hordes. The sequence of objects 
in the caves being much more complete in France 
than in this country, it will be better to deal with it first, 
and then give a few notes respecting our own caves 

^ L'Anthrop., xv. 61. 

- lb. ib. 625. 


and their contents. According to the classification of 
M. de Mortillet,^ somewhat modified in that given on 
p. 9, the Chellean period comes first. This is not a 
period, however, belonging to the cave-series, but to 
that of the river-drift. It is sometimes called the 
Acheulean period from the place St. Acheul. Leaving 

' It is a little difficult to choose amongst the numerous and constantly 
varyingf classifications proposed by different authorities, and that of 
Mortillet has been selected and adhered to because, up to now, it is the 
most generally used and the best known. However, mention must be made 
of the important classification suggested by Hoernes. This classification is 
as follow : — * 

I. First Glacial Period. (Pliocene, Geikie.) 

(a) First Inter-Glacial. Chelleo-Mousterien, Tropical fauna, Elephas 
antiquus, Rhinoceros Merckii. Human beings living in the open air, some- 
times in grottos. Stone implements large and coarse ; types of Chelles, 
St. Acheul, and Moustier. 

II. Second Glacial Period. 

{b) Second Inter-Glacial. Solutrean. Mildlclimate. The fauna has lost 
the tropical animals. Mammoths and Rhinoceros tichorinus are numerous ; 
the horse is common. Reindeer, stag, and bison are still rare. In the 
caverns live the lion, bear, hyena, wolf, and fox. Towards the end of 
the period the Proboscideans and Carnivora become more numerous, and 
the bear disappears. The human race is African, and, as we know them 
by ivory statuettes, negroid and steatopygous. Their skeletons are of the 
type known as that of Grimaldi. Stone implements are finer than those of 
the preceding epoch, sometimes very fine. Man sculptured on bone and 
ivory and executed perfect figurines. He lived in caverns, the walls of 
which he decorated with pictures of animals. 

III. Third Glacial Period. Disappearance of more ancient fauna and 
development of Arctic fauna (reindeer, etc.). 

(c) Third Inter-Glacial. The epoch of reindeer or Magdalenian in the 
whole of Europe, followed in Western Europe by the epoch of the stag 
(Asylian). The Magdalenian period is the epoch described by previous 
writers under the same name. 

IV. Fourth Glacial Period. Arisian {dtage coquillier) in the south of 
France and hiatus in the rest of Europe. 

{d) Post-Glacial, Neolithic, 

* Hoernes, Dcr diluviaU Mensch in Europa, Vienna, 1903. See L'Anthro/>olo^ie, xv. 195. 


this aside the first cave-period is that of Le Mousticr, 
the Mousterian era. The cavern from which this period 
takes its name is situated on the right bank of the V^zere, 
and about ninety feet above its present level. The climate 
during this period was cold and damp, and the mammoth, 
the woolly rhinoceros, the cave-bear, and the musk-sheep 
or ox, were the characteristic animals of the fauna. The 
implements are worked on one side only into choppers or 
side-scrapers. On the opposite side to the cutting-edge 
part of the crust is retained for the purpose of ensuring 
a firm grip. Pointed implements wrought into shapes 
something like spear-heads are also found. Instruments 
of bone are almost entirely wanting. 

The Solutrean period owes its name to the rock-shelter 
at Solutre (Saone-et-Loire), a settlement on a plateau at 
the base of a limestone escarpment, by which it was to 
some extent sheltered. Laugerie Haute, by some con- 
sidered to afford more typical examples of the work of the 
period which certainly underlie a deposit of Madelainean 
date, and Cro-Magnon, celebrated for the skeletons there 
discovered in 1868, are other settlements belonging to this 
period. The climate seems to have been mild and dry. 
The horse existed in large herds, hence the term equidian 
sometimes given to this period, though not co-terminous 
with it ; the reindeer and the mammoth were also amongst 
the fauna, but the rhinoceros had disappeared. The 
characteristic implements are lozenge and leaf-shaped 
heads, delicately chipped, and closely resembling arrow- 
heads, which perhaps may be their real nature, also lance- 
heads or daggers chipped on both surfaces. The working 
in stone reveals a great advance upon that of the preceding 
period. There is also a great improvement in the con- 
struction of objects of bone and horn, but this will be 
dealt with separately when the objects made of these 
materials are considered by themselves. A bridge between 


this period and the next seems to be afforded by the cave of 
Les Eyzies, in the Dordogne, where Madelainean harpoons 
made of reindeer horn outnumber the implements of stone. 
The Madelainean period itself receives its name from 
the cave of La Madelaine, in the Dordogne. The 
climate during this period was cold and dry, and there was 
a great development of the northern fauna, particularly 
the reindeer, after which animal the era has sometimes 
been called. It forms the earlier part of the Cervidian 
epoch of Piette's table. The mammoth became extinct 

I. Avebury. a. French. 3. Icklingham 

during this time. It may be looked upon as the great 
epoch of work in horn and bone. These will be fully 
dealt with in a later chapter. As far as stone implements 
are concerned, the examples do not show as high a pitch 
of skill or workmanship as those of the Solutrean time. 
Perhaps this may have been because the facility with 
which the softer materials of horn and bone were worked 
tempted man to decline the more arduous task of shaping 
stone to the lance-heads and other forms of the earlier 
date. That it was an earlier date there can be no doubt, 
for, as mentioned above, Solutrean objects underlie those 
of the Madelainean time at Laugerie Haute. The rock- 


shelters at Laugerie Basse and Bruniquel also belong" to 
this period. The stone implements include flakes and 
long scrapers (see Fig. i6^ for the type), pebbles with 
depressions in them of a mortar-like character, hammer- 
stones and in some cases flint saws. Side-scrapers are 
rare and leaf-shaped blades are entirely absent. From the 
later Madelainean period in which the antlers of red deer 
to some extent replaced the horns of the reindeer as 
material for the manufacture of harpoons and other 
implements we arrive at the Asylian epoch, called after 
the grotto of Mas d'Azil, which is regarded by many 
as a true transition era between Palceolithic and Neolithic 
times. As this grotto has already been dealt with in the 
first chapter, it will not be necessary to touch further on 
the subject here. 

Of English caves the most celebrated is Kent's Cavern, 
to which sufficient allusion has already been made. Others 
in Devonshire are at Brixham and Newbury. The Cress- 
well caves (Robin Hood, Church-Hole, and Pin-Hole) in 
Derbyshire are also of great interest. Under a layer of 
stalagmite up to a foot in thickness is an upper bed 
containing quartzite implements of a somewhat similar 
character to that discovered at Saltley in the gravels of 
the river Rea. Flint and ironstone tools have also been 
found, with implements of bone of various kinds, and 
an incised head of a horse with a hog-mane, the only 
work of art of the madelainean type found in England. 
In this layer are bones of the woolly rhinoceros, reindeer, 
lion, hyaena, hippopotamus, etc. The lowest bed, which 
is three feet thick, and consists of red sand and clay, 
contained implements of Acheulian type associated here, 
as elsewhere, with bones of the reindeer, woolly rhinoceros, 
mammoth, hysena, and horse.^ 

^ For fuller information on the subject of caves, Boyd-Dawkins' Cave- 
Hunting should be consulted, also the following- : Report of the Comviittee 
of the Royal and Geological Societies on Brixham Cave; L' Anthropologic, 
xii. , p. 130, list of French caves; Keane, Ethnology, p. 78. 


In Europe traces of palaeolithic man have been found 
outside England, in France, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, 
Germany, Austria, and Italy. His relics have not been 
discovered in those countries which did not become habit- 
able until after the retreat of the glaciers, thus no traces 
have been discovered in Scandinavia, nor in the Alpine 
districts, nor in the greater part of North Germany. 
Outside Europe remains belonging to this class have 
been found in the quaternary strata of North Africa 
(Algiers and Egypt), in India (Deccan), and, according 
to some, in Western North America, though there is still 
some doubt as to the age to which these last implements 
really belong. In South Africa (Swaziland) implements 
have been found in river-gravels, very much of the same 
kind as those discovered at Broom, and probably palaeo- 
lithic.^ A list of river -drift implement localities in 
England, arranged according to counties, is given at the 
end of this chapter. In Evans' book most of the same 
places will be found arranged according to the river 
systems to which they belong. In the Prehistoric Room 
at the British Museum there is a large map of England, 
on which the localities both of cave and river-drift imple- 
ments are marked by pins, a most instructive demonstra- 
tion of the subject which should be carefully examined. 
Attention should also be called to the truly admirable 
Guide to the Antiquities of the Stone Age hi the Depart- 
7iient of British and Mediaeval Antiquities in the British 
Museum, published by the Trustees. The learner who 
takes this book in his hand and studies the cases contain- 
ing the specimens which it describes will have little 
difficulty in gaining a good idea of the objects belonging 
to this and the later stone periods. 

^ R. Jones, Journ. oj Anthrop, Soc, N.S., i. p. 48. 




Devonshire. — Brixham, Windmill Hill Cavern. 
Happaway Cavern. 
Newbury, Tor Br3'an Cave (also neolithic objects, see Proc. 

Soc, Antiq., s. ii., viii. 249). 
Plymouth, Cattedovvn Cave (in which human remains of 

Perthi - Chwareu type have been found. Cf. Worth, 

Trans. Devon. Assoc, for Advt. of Sci., 1887, ^i^- 419)- 
Torquay, Kent's Hole {Trans. Devon. Assoc. y ii. 469; iii. 

191 ; iv. 467). 

Monmouth. — King Arthur's Cave, near Whitchurch, Ross. 

Somerset. — Cheddar (neolithic and late Celtic objects in Cough's 
Wookey Hole, near Wells. Palaeolithic. 

Derbyshire. — Cresswell Crags. 

Yorkshire. — Settle, Victoria Cave (palaeolithic and late Celtic 
Skipton, Lotherdale Cave. Palaeolithic. 

Wales. — Cae-Gwyn, Vale of Clwyd {Quart, fonrn. Geol. Soc, 
1888, 112). 

Cefn, near S. Asaph. 
Coygan, S. Caermarthen- 

Ffynnon Beuno. 

Long Hole, Cower. 
Moyles Mouth, Oyle Cave, 

Pont Newydd. 


Bedfordshire — 

Biddenham, near Bedford. 

Bossington, near Leighton 
*Caddington(W. Sm\ih,Man 
the PrimcEval Savage). 

Dallow Farm, near Luton. 
Honey Hill. 

Houghton Regis, near Dun- 
Leagrave Marsh, near Luton. 

Buckinghamshire. — Great Missenden. 


Berkshire — ^ 

Grovelands, near Reading. 
Pier's Green. 

Ruscombe, near Twyford. 
Cambridgeshire — 





Dorsetshire. — Devvlish. 

Essex — 

Abberton, near Colchester. 

Ardleigh, near Colchester. 

Barking, St.Swithin's Farm. 

Barking, Wallend. 

Dovercourt, near Harwich. 

Felstead, North End Place. 

Farmstead, Lake's Farm, 
Cramshall Lane. [ter. 

Lexden Park, near Colches- 

Leyton, Grove Green Lane. 
Hampshire. — Barton. 

Bournemouth. [ampton. 

Hillhead, 9 N.E. of South- 
IsLE OF Wight. — Bembridge. 





SwafFham Fen. 
*Broom, near Axminster. 

I Kentisbere, near Collumpton. 

Wimborne Minster. 


St. Osyth's, near Colchester. 


Stanway, near Lexden. 



West Bergholt (several of 
these discovered by H. G. 
Laver, Esq., and commu- 
nicated to me). 

Lee on the Solent. 
Southampton Common. 

Sea View. 

West High Down, near Freshwater Bay {Geol, Mag.y Dec. 
iv., vii. 406). 
Hertfordshire — 

Abbot's Langley. 

Ayot St. Peter. 

Barton Green. 




Bishop's Stortford. 

Fisher's Green, Stevenage. 

Flamstead End, near Ches- 

Harpenden. [hunt. 

Hemel Hempstead, near. 



Ickleford, near Hitchin. 


Kenworth, Mount Pleasant. 

^ For implements in Thames Valley between Reading and Maidenhead 
see Mati, 1904, ix. 


Hertfordshire (contd.) — 




North Mimms, south of 

Stocking: Pelham. 


Huntingdonshire. — Abbot's Ripton. 

Elton, near Oundle. 

Hartford, near Hunting'don. 
Kent — 



Canterbury, near. 


Chatham, Otterham Quay. 


Crayford Station. 

Currie Farm. 



Gillingham, near Chatham. 



Green Street Green. 

Heme Bay. 

Horton Kirby. 

Lincolnshire — 

Lincoln, near. 
Middlesex — [here. 

Acton, various places near 

Dawley, West Drayton. 

Ealing- Dean. 

Enfield, Bush Hill Park. 

Enfield, Forty Hill. 


Hackney Downs, near 


Highbury New Park, near 
Stoke Newington. 

London. (Implements have 
been found in the City, 

Little Orton, 

near Peter- 

Knock Hall Lane. 





Ospringe, near Faversham. 


Reculver, Wear Farm. 

St. Mary Hoo. 



Swale Cliff". 

Swanscombe (yl/««, 1903, 155). 

Teynham Station, near. 



Wickham, near Bromley. 

Skegness {Man, 1907, 89). 

Gray's hin Lane, Clerken- 
well, London Fields, Dalston, 
Kingsland, Homerton, Hack- 
ney,Lower Clapton, Stamford 
Hill, Mildmay Park, South 
Hornsey, Abney Park Ceme- 
tery ; see Smith, "Primeval 
Savage," A^rt/«r^, xxvii. 270, 
and Ma7i, 1909, 56. 

Lower Edmonton, Rowan 
Tree Farm, and other locali- 
ties near. 

Mill Hill, near Acton. 


Norfolk — 

Feltwell, Shrub Hill. 

Rushford, Snare Hill. 
South Wootton. 

Oxford — 

Bagley Wood, near Iffley. 
Hinksey, in Thames. 

Suffolk — 
*Brandon gravel-hill. 

Bungay {Man, igo8, 93). 

Bury St. Edmunds. 


Fornham All Saints. 

Higham, Ballast Pit, G. E. R. 
near Bury St. Edmunds. 

Icklingham. [1903, 41). 

Ipswich {Jl. Anth. Inst., 

Surrey — 

Battersea and many other 
localities on Thames, for 
which see Evans, p. 588. 

Farley Heath. 


Sussex — 
Coates Common. 
Fittleworth Common and 

Warwickshire — Saltley. 

Wiltshire — 

Ashford in the Water. 

Bemerton, near Salisbury. 






Thetford, Red Hill, and 

West Runton. 


Marston Ferry. 

Maid's Cross, Lakenheath. 
Melford Junction. 
Santon Downham. 
West Stow. 


Peasemarsh, near Guildford. 



Friston and Crow Link Gap, 
near Eastbourne. 

Knowle Farm, near Saver- 
nake {Man, 1906, 26, 55, 76) 

Milford Hill. 
South Newton. 



yiS in other portions of the Prehistoric period, so in 
jt\_ connection with the period with which this chapter 
is concerned, it is impossible to assign any date, in 
an ordinary chronological manner, for the commencement 
of the Neolithic period in this country or elsewhere. Most 
probably there is no such date, for the reason that there 
was no sharp distinction between this period and that 
which preceded it. It is clear that the introduction of 
metal is a definite milestone on the road of civilisation, 
but the acquisition of a new and improved method of 
working stone can scarcely be regarded in the same light. 
The polishing of stone was a distinct advance, but the 
majority of the implements of the Neolithic period are not 
polished. Hence, as already pointed out, it is not always 
possible with safety to decide, apart from its place of dis- 
covery, whether a given implement is palaeolithic or 
neolithic, that is, a certain range of implements, for, of 
course, there are many as to which no reasonable doubt 
can arise. Scandinavia is a country which so far has 
afforded no evidence of palaeolithic implements, so that 
here the problem is somewhat narrowed down. As to the 
date of the appearance of man — in the neolithic stage of 
culture — in this part of the world, we have some evi- 
dence, dim and doubtful, it is true, but perhaps a shade 

F 65 


less so than in most other cases. Denmark, as its peat- 
mosses show, has had four distinct periods of vegetation 
during the time that the country has been occupied by 
man. From the commencement of history down to the 
present day the beech has been the chief tree in its 
forests. Before the beech the pedunculated oak flourished. 
This was preceded by the sessile oak, which had in its 
turn succeeded the Scotch fir. It has been urged that a 
period of not less than 2,500 years must be allowed for 
the rise, progress, and decline of each of these successive 
vegetations. Here we enter the region of surmise, for 
there is no convincing evidence for the figure above- 
mentioned. Still we obtain some idea of the number of 
years which must have elapsed since men, skilled in the 
skill of the neolithic stone-worker, first made their way 
into the Danish peninsula. Along the shores of its coast 
are found great heaps of shells, chiefly of the oyster, the 
refuse of the meals of an early race of inhabitants. These 
mounds or kitchen-middens (Kjokkenmoddings) contain 
flint implements of a rude character, and also fragments 
of pottery. It has been claimed for them that they are 
relics of the earliest times of the Neolithic period, and if 
so, they may be compared with the shell-layer of the grotto 
of Mas d'Azil. But there is another view, that the heaps 
were the refuse of a people, in a very backward stage 
of civilisation, it is true, but not necessarily of very early 
date. This view seems to gain some support from the fact 
that some of the rude implements met with amongst the 
rest of the debris actually appear to have been made from 
polished objects. This, at least, is clear, that the imple- 
ments are of a much humbler type than the more finished 
works characteristic of a part of the Neolithic period, and 
particularly in the same part of the world. The kitchen- 
middens belong to a stage of civilisation still existent in 
Tierra del Fuego, and have been found in England (Hast- 


ings, Ventnor, Tenby, on the Wash, and in Devon 
and Cornwall) ; Scotland (Oban, Moray Firth, Loch 
Spynie) ; Ireland (Cork Harbour ; White Park Bay, 
County Antrim ; Kinnegar Strand, Lough Swilly ; and 
elsewhere). They have also been met with in France, 
Portugal, Sardinia, Florida, Japan, Chili, Massachusetts, 
and Georgia. Everywhere they represent a stage of 
civilisation of a low type, where shell-fish formed the chief 
food-material and where little trouble was expended on 
shaping the flint implements, which are not much altered 
from the flakes originally detached from the central core. 
Kitchen-middens, then, afford no safe test of age. They 
"cover the whole field from Palaeolithic to modern times, 
some being very old, others still in progress, so that each 
has to be taken on its merits."^ As to size, Petroff'^ 
writes: " The time required for the formation of a so-called 
layer of kitchen refuse found under the sites of Aleutian 
or Innuit (Eskimo) dwellings, I am inclined to think less 
than indicated by Mr. Dall's calculations. Anybody who 
has watched a healthy Innuit family in the process of 
making a meal on the luscious echinus or sea-urchin, 
would naturally imagine that in the course of a month 
they might pile up a great quantity of spinous debris. 
Both hands are kept busy conveying the sea-fruit to the 
capacious mouth ; with a skilful combined action of 
teeth and tongue the shell is cracked, the rich contents 
extracted, and the former falls rattling to the ground in a 
continuous shower of fragments until the meal is concluded. 
A family of three or four adults, and perhaps an equal 
number of children, will leave behind them a shell monu- 
ment of their voracity a foot or eighteen inches in height 
after a single meal. . . . The heaps of refuse created 
under such circumstances during a single season were 
truly astonishing in size. They will surely mislead the 

^ Keane, Ethnology, p. 77. ^ American Naturalist, July, 1882, teste Keane. 


ingeMiious calculator of the antiquities of shell heaps a 
thousand years hence." 

Even if we allow that the flints of the kitchen-middens 
are the earliest objects which can fairly be assigned to the 
Neolithic or surface period, we cannot any further continue 
a consecutive classification, for the very reason that the 
objects which we have to classify are surface objects and 
not found in strata like some of those associated with the 
Palaeolithic age. It is perhaps only at the two ends that 
we can attempt anything like a relative chronological 
arrangement. The kitchen-midden implements may be 
the earliest, and these are at one end. Other implements 
seem to have been made solely, or perhaps mostly, after 
a knowledge of bronze had diffused itself, and that is the 
other end. For the rest, the only method of classification 
is by types, and to a consideration of these the rest of this 
chapter will be devoted. 

Celts. — ^Those who desire to study the very curious etymo- 
logy of this word must be referred to the pages of Sir John 
Evans' work ; for us here it will be sufficient to say that 
the term connotes an axe-head, whether of stone or bronze; 
and this being the most important and characteristic im- 
plement of both periods will, in each case, first receive 
attention. In the case of the stone implement there is 
a remarkable similarity of type in, one may fairly say, 
all parts of the world, for the stone axe-heads of America, 
Fiji, New Zealand, and Ireland, are many of them of almost 
identical pattern, and are clearly fashioned everywhere 
in response to a common demand. In the manufacture 
of these implements in this country there were evidently 
three stages. In the first a block of flint or other hard 
stone was so chipped as to approximate to the shape at 
which it was finally intended to arrive, blocked-out, so to 
speak. Suppose the workman to have been dissatisfied 



with his product, or weary of hibour. The partly-finished 
tool is thrown away and never completed. When picked 
up by some latter-day archaeologist such an object may 
be mistaken for a very rude implement or even for one 
of paleolithic type, for there is a considerable resem- 
blance between the two types. Yet it may be an imple- 
ment of quite a late date, arch^eologically speaking, but 
an implement which has never got beyond the blocking- 
out stage. In the second stage finer work is applied to 
the object under manufacture. Smaller pieces are removed 
from it by careful flaking, perhaps by pressure, until it 
begins to assume the shape and characteristics of the 
neolithic celt. 

In Fig. 17 will be seen an example, from Cissbury, 
which has arrived at this stage. 
Probably it was a final stage in 
many cases, perhaps always during 
the earlier part of the Neolithic time. 
A man pressed for time, in a part 
of the country where food was hard 
to get and the strain of life severe, 
may well have contented himself 
with an instrument of this type, even 
though he may have been aware that 
by taking more time and expending 
more labour he could have put a 
handsome polish upon his tool, and 
perhaps made it a more useful weapon. 
At any rate, it seems highly probable 
that a good many of these rough {i.e. Sj 
unpolished) neolithic celts were never "■ 
intended to be polished, but are the 
finished object, not a mere stage in 
the manufacture. In the third stage fig. 17. rough stone celt 
we have two distinct divisions— the Cissbury (j) 


celts polished only at the cutting edge, and the celts 
which are polished all over. The first class show a 
desire for utility alone, the second for beauty as well 
as for utility. An implement carefully sharpened at the 
edge and for some little distance behind is no doubt a 
better cutting tool and a more deadly weapon than one 
which is rough and blunt. But one cannot see that the 
polishing of the remainder of the tool, and particularly of 
that part of it which is to be hidden in the haft, is of any 
advantage, and if this way of looking at the question is the 
right one, then one must assign the additional and un- 
necessary polishing to the love of art, the aesthetic sense, 
which awakens in man when the excessive pressure of the 
struggle with nature has been to some small extent dimin- 
ished. The finished product in the shape of a neolithic 
celt is an axe-shaped implement, polished all over. As 
regards the finishing of the edges, there are two distinct 
forms. There is a type met with in Denmark, for example, 
with squared edges, and there is another type met with, 
for example, in Ireland, with rounded edges (see Figs. 
i8 and 19). Both these types are met with in England, 
and possibly it may turn out that they are typical of two 
different races. Besides the ordinary form of celt with 
which I have been dealing hitherto, there are one or two 
other types of which some mention must be made. The 
bored celt or stone hammer (see Fig. 83) seems to have 
been a very late implement, perhaps unknown until after 
the introduction of bronze. The utility of an implement 
into which a handle was inserted, as opposed to one which 
was inserted into a handle, may have been suggested to 
primitive man by some naturally perforated piece of stone. 
Judging by what we know of present-day primitive races, 
it does not seem to have been an idea easily arrived at, 
or perhaps one ought to say an idea which much com- 
mends itself to the savage mind. In the Pitt-Rivers 



Museum at Oxford there is an ordinary iron axe-head 
with the aperture for the reception of the helve carefully 
hammered up. This axe-head was traded off to the in- 
habitants of New Guinea. The man into whose possession 

FIG. i8 
Irish (J) 

FIG. 19 


Irish (J) 

it came evidently thought that the hole in the head was 
some unaccountable bit of foolishness, for he first carefully 
hammered it up with the aid of a couple of stones, and 
then proceeded to fit his new weapon into a wooden haft, 
just as he had been accustomed to do with his old stone 
implement. Another very distinct type of celt is the 



chisel-shaped (Fi^. 20), of which are found the three 
forms or stages belonging to the ordinary celt, the rough- 
chipped type, the type chipped at the cutting edge (Fig. 
21 ^), and the type polished all over 
(Fig, 21-). It is useless to attempt to 
speculate as to the use of these imple- 
ments, but they exist and form a distinct 
class. Another implement merging into 
the rough celt has been called a grub- 
bing-tool, and is very likely, perhaps 

Dewlish (i) 

FIG. 21 
I. Rough, Newhaven, 
Sussex. 2. Polished, Ex- 
ceat, Sussex (j) 

amongst other purposes, to have served that end. One of 
these implements is shown in Fig. 22, and evidently might 
have been used to kill an animal or to injure a man, quite 
as well as to grub up some edible root. One cannot too 


carefully bear in mind that it is not always possible to 
imagine to ourselves the exact object for which a certain 
implement was made, and that many implements must 
have been intended to have been put to a variety of uses. 
Take the implement shown in Fig. 22. No one can handle 
it without feeling that it really is a most useful tool for 

FIG. 22 

Tower FiM, Suffolk (f) 

a variety of purposes. The natural shape of the flint has 
been made use of to provide a boss which will prevent 
the hand from slipping, and the cutting edge has been 
carefully flaked. It is almost as hard to place an imple- 
ment of this kind in any particular category as it is to say 
what it might have been intended for. The fact is that 
it is a kind of general utility implement, and like many 
others which w^e find, a real testimony to the ingenuity of 
the man who made it, an instrument available for digging, 
for scraping, doubtless for many other useful purposes. 

Unlike the palaeolithic celts, the neolithic celts were 
intended to be fitted with a handle. The commonest 
method of achieving this seems to have been by making 
a hole in one end of a long piece of wood, through which 
hole the 'axe-head was thrust, narrow end first. That 
this method was adopted there can be no shadow- of 


doubt, for though in the bulk of cases the handles have 
disappeared from decay, yet in certain instances, such as 
that shown in Fig. 23, they remain to this day. Any 
person looking at this arrangement with a mechanical 
eye would at once see its weak point. Every 
blow on the edge of the axe will tend to drive 
it further into its helve, and the tendency of 
this process must be to split the wood of 
which the latter is composed. In some mea- 
sure this might have been, and perhaps was, 
guarded against by wrapping the helve with 
bands of hide ; but in the Swiss lake villages 
there was another plan in vogue. An inter- 
mediate socket of deer-horn was constructed, 
into which was inserted the small stone axe- 
head. The horn socket was then inserted 
into a hole at the end of the helve. The 
force of the concussions must have been 
considerably diminished by this method be- 
fore it reached the wooden handle. An 
example of a stone axe fitted into its horn 
socket is shown in Fig. 24, and beside it is 
one of the small axe-heads which were em- 
ployed for the purpose. 

Another form of celt seems from its curves 
to have been used more like an adze than 
an axe, and the fact that examples of this 
HANDLED CELT kind arc found along the banks of the Thames 
(Much reduced) Irish j^g^y- point to their having been used, as Dr. 
Haddon has shown, in New Guinea, for the hollowing 
of "dug-out" canoes. An implement of this type is 
shown in Fig. 25, and one can well imagine that it may 
have been fixed to a haft much as the New Guinea adzes 
now are. A bough is removed from a tree with a portion 
of the trunk adhering to it. Thus a V-shaped piece of 

FIG. 23 



wood is obtained, one limb being shorter than the other, 
and of course not attached to it at so acute an angle as 
that which is formed by the two limbs of the letter. To 


I, Set in reindeer-horn. 2. Separate stone Celt of same type 

Swiss (3) 

the shorter limb is lashed the stone head, secured in its 
place by bindings of cane and vegetable fibre, materials 
which would have probably been replaced in this country 
by strips of raw hide. The longer limb forms the handle. 
Knives and knife-like implements naturally formed a 
large part of the output of the flint manufacturer, and 

Thames at Chertsey (j) 


were of the most diverse types. No doubt in many 
instances sharp flakes without any further secondary work 
fulfilled admirably many of the purposes for which a knife 
is required. The long, keen flakes of obsidian made in 
Mexico are said to have been used for sacrificial purposes, 
and are certainly sharp enough for cutting flesh. But the 

Fn. 26. KNivKs (flat-backed and tanged) 

Neuhaven, Sussex (5 linear) 

term knife as used here is applied to implements whose 
secondary working seems to have been undertaken for the 
purpose of turning them into tools useful for cutting and 
skinning purposes. Two special varieties of these may 
first be dealt with — the broad-backed and the naturally 
handled. The two types are shown in Fig. 26. The 
example on the left of the figure belongs to the flat-backed 
variety. Such an implement was made to hold in the 



hand with the forefinger along the back. Take a tool of 
this kind in the hand and shift it into different positions, 
and it will at once be found how well adapted it is for the 
purposes mentioned above. When held in this manner 
the sharp cutting edge is downwards, and so arranged as 
to be employed to the best advantage. A variety of this 
type is the knife met with, at times in its handle, in the 
Swiss lake villages. Here the back of the knife was 
inserted into a piece of wood somewhat longer than itself, 
and was secured in its socket by asphalt. The result was 
a knife comparable, not to what we commonly call a knife 
at the present day, but to the scrapers with which butchers 
may be seen cleaning their blocks. The idea of this kind 
of knife was the same as that of the broad-backed knife, 
only that one was intended to have been held directly in 
the hand whilst the other possessed a wooden handle. 

The naturally handled knife is shown on the other side 
of Fig. 26. This tool was evidently intended to be held by 
its end and not by its back. Very possibly the end may 
have been wrapped round with some vegetable fibre or 
skin wrapping, for in Egyptian knives of this type that 
method has been observed. Besides these two forms, 
there is a distinct series of triangular knives, and there 
are others not conforming to any of these types. In 
further illustration of 
the fact that primitive 
man was quite ingeni- 
ous enough to turn an 
unusually shaped stone 
to a particular use, 
attention may be called 
to Fig. 27. Here is an 
implement made from 

a piece of flint of a ^-urved knife-likr .flint 
curious shape. It was implement (f) 


originally a C-shaped lump of stone. The hollow part 
makes a most excellent hold for the hand, whilst the 
sharply trimmed external edge, when the implement is 
thus grasped, is admirably adapted for the purpose of 
removing a skin from an animal. 

Scrapers. — After skinning an animal it is necessary that 
the fat and other matters adhering to the inner aspect of the 
hide should be removed, if it is to be used for the purposes 
of a garment or a covering. For the purpose of this re- 
moval, neolithic man seems to have manufactured myriads 
of implements, which we call scrapers. In fact, these are, 
perhaps, the commonest of all the implements of the 

Icklingham (J) 

period, omitting mere flakes which show us secondary 
working. Varying though they do in shape and size, 
there is a general similarity between all the convex 
scrapers, the type which we are now considering. Each 
has been made out of a flake detached from a block of 
flint. The surface of detachment, with its bulb of per- 
cussion, has been left untouched. At one end, or it may 
be at one side of the other, a bevelled edge has been pro- 



duced by secondary flaking. This edge is generally semi- 
circular in its outline. Sometimes the scraper is long 
(Fig. i6\ sometimes broad (Fig. 
28 R.), the two forms sometimes 
called "finger" and "thumb" 
flints. In other cases (Figs. 29 
and 30) the scraper is round and 
worked along the greater part of 
its border. These tiny "button" 
scrapers are rather a puzzle, for 
they are so small that it seems (.- 
difficult to understand how they 
were employed. 

It is obvious that they w^ere of some use, otherwise they 
would not have been manufactured even in moderate 
numbers. Again, there is a form of scraper which is 
bevelled at the edge, the "side-scraper," a less common 

Lakenhealh (il) 

Mas d'Azil ({) 

variety than the two first named. Some of the two 
commoner forms of scraper, being of considerable size, 
may probably have been used in the hand. Others may 
have been provided with a handle, for the Esquimaux, 
who use worked pieces of stone almost identical in 
character for the purpose of cleaning skins, insert these 
tools into bone handles. The concave, or as it is some- 
times called, "hollow" scraper (Figs. 28 l. and 31 l.), is 


quite a different kind of tool. Here the object was not to 
clean the inside of a skin, but to shape off the rough- 
nesses of a stick so as to convert it into an arrow-shaft — 
for which reason this kind of scraper is sometimes called 

I. (L.) Lakenheath. 2. (R.) Icklinghain (5) 

a ''shaft-maker" — or to round an implement of bone — 
a needle, or a borer — out of a splinter detached from the 
bone of some large animal. Hence in this class of 
scraper we find one or more concave notches worked out 
in the side of the stone or at its end ; in fact, we come 
back to the same implement with which we were con- 
fronted amongst eoliths and palccoliths, but vastly better 
worked. Some of the most delicate of these implements 
found in Ireland are so thin and fragile that one wonders 
for what task they may have been designed. Similar 
examples have also occurred in Scotland. Ireland pro- 
vides a great variety of the ordinary kind of scraper, and 
Mr. Knowles^ has classified them as follows: (i.) side- 
scrapers, the racloirs of the French ; (ii.) end-scrapers 

' Proc. Roy. Soc. Antiquaries of Ireland, viii. 367. 



divided into (a) those with circular curve, (l?) those with 
eUiptical curve, (c) oblique-ended, (d) broad or square- 
ended, (e) small-ended, (f) double-ended ; (iii.) toothed. 
Figs. 28 and 31 l. show two kinds of concave scrapers, 
both double, but in one case the two hollows are at oppo- 
site ends of the implements ; in the other they are side by 

Arrow-heads of flint, and sometimes of other hard 
stones, are objects which always catch the eye of the 
public in a collection of neolithic implements, on account 
of the exquisite skill with which many of them have been 
turned out. These implements were not merely manu- 

Aberdeenshire (natural size) 

factured during the Stone period, but found a market, if 
it may so be phrased, during the whole of the Bronze 
Age, and perhaps the Iron also. Hence we find them, as 
will be pointed out in a later chapter, in entombments 
belonging to the Metallic period. Several varieties have 
been recognised, which have been named leaf-shaped, 
lozenge-shaped, tanged, tanged and barbed, single- 
barbed and triangular. The characters of these types 
will be sufficiently indicated by the representations of 
them in Figs. 32-34. Stone arrow-heads are, of 
course, found in many parts of the world. Perhaps the 
most beautifully finished examples are those which were 


manufactured in Oregon and in Prehistoric Japan. One 
can hardly doubt that the prehistoric arrow-heads were 
fastened on to their shafts in the same manner as that 
which we know to have been adopted by savage races in 

I. Barbed, Aberdeenshire. 2. Tanged and barbed. 3. Single-tanged (j) 

modern times. The head is secured to the shaft by a 
lashing of strips of hide, put on raw and then allowed to 
dry in the sun. The result is a shrinkage which binds 
head and shaft together wonderfully firmly. That such 
a head with a strong bow behind it was capable of doing 

effective work there is abun- 
dant evidence of the char- 
acter afforded by Fig. 35. 
This is a drawing of a 
human lumbar vertebra, in 
which is embedded a flint 
arrow-head. As the missile 
has penetrated the front of 
the vertebra, it must have 
pierced through the whole 
of the abdomen, wall and 
viscera, before reaching the 
vertebral column in which 
it has so firmly fixed itself. 

FIG. 34. 
I. Irish. 2, 

Thames at Hammersmith (j) 


Saws made of flint are recognisable by their carefully- 
serrated edge (see Fig. 31 R.). These also seem to have 
been made after the age of metal had commenced. Canon 
Greenwell found seventy-nine of thcso implements in one 
barrow opened by him- 
self.^ Borers, drills, pun- 
ches, 2i\-\d fabricators , need 
no very lengthy nor pre- 
cise description, si nee their 
purposes are fairly well 
indicated by their names, 
andtheirappearances may 
be learnt from Fig. 36. 
With regard, however, to 
the last-named variety of 
objects, it ought perhaps 
to be stated that they are supposed to have been used for 
the purpose of making the finer flaking on neolithic im- 
plements (sec p. 36). Fig. 36 is a good example of this class. 



Grotte de la Tourrasse 

Avebury ({) 

' British Barrows, p. 262. 




Pi^my Implements (Eig. 37) form an interesting class 

which has lately attracted 
a good deal of attention. 
The Rev. R. A. Gattyi 
has described a number 
of varieties, and from this 
paper and from letters, 
which he has been good 
enough to send me, I ex- 
tract the following points 
on this class of imple- 
ments. The true pigmy 
implements met with on 
the Vindhya Hills, in 
India, and in England 
and elsewhere, seem to 
fall into four classes, all 
of which are exemplified 
in Fig. 37. These with 
the sizes of the smallest 
examples are as follows — 

r in. Scunthorpe j^g in. 


Top line, Scunthorpe; middle line, Vindhya 

Hills, India; lower line, Lakenheath (j) 

Smallest Crescent . 
Scalene .... 
Rounded and pointed 
Rhomboidal . 



\ t5 



The scalene variety is the same as that called ''trapeze" 
by M. de Pierpont, who has found them in Belgium. 
Besides these genuine pigmies there are also small imple- 
ments such as the tiny arrow-head shown in Fig. 37 (top 
line, centre object) and in addition to this variety Mr. Gatty 
has also found tiny scrapers, convex and concave, knives, 
chisels, and points which may have been used for tipping 
blow darts. So small are some of these that sixty-four 

^ Man, F"eb. , 1902. 


circular scrapers have been found which tai<en together 
weighed less than half an ounce. Of the so-called 
*' Indian " varieties the remarkable point is that the forms 
in England and the forms in India are identical, a fact 
which, some have thought, points to a communication 
between these countries at a very early period. Others, on 
the contrary, only see in the resemblance a common result 
of a common need. The cutting edges show no secondary 
work, but the backs have in all instances been carefully 
retouched. The localities in which they have so far been 
found are not numerous in this country, but where they 
have been discovered they seem to exist in great numbers, 
and if accompanied by other implements — they are often 
found quite by themselves — then these implements seem 
to belong rather to early than late types of neolithic 
manufacture. Many suggestions have been put forward 
as to the purpose for which they were constructed. It is 
thought that they may have been used for tattooing, as 
barbs for arrows or harpoons, for arming fish-gigs, and for 
other purposes. This is a point which has not yet been 
cleared up, and perhaps never may be cleared up, but there 
can be no doubt that the group is a genuine and very 
interesting class of stone implements. In England Mr. 
Gatty has found these little tools in North Lincolnshire 
(Scunthorpe) on sand-dunes, and in the valley of the Don, 
near Bradfield. Dr. Colley March has found them on the 
Pennine Range, at an altitude of 1,300 feet. They have 
also been found at Lakenheath. As to the identity of all 
these and their belonging to the so-called Indian classes 
there is no doubt. Implements of the same kind, but 
perhaps belonging to the class of small tools, not the 
Indian varieties, have also been described from a 
kitchen-midden near Hastings, and from sand-dunes in 
Su'^olk. Amongst the very numerous flint implements 
foujid at the Glenluce Sands, Wigtonshire, and at the 


Culbin Sands, El^in, there are many tiny implements, 
borers, scrapers, etc. , but only a few of these — and perhaps 
these accidentally — agree in shape with the Indian forms. 
In France they have been discovered at Bruniquel and at 
Garancieres (Seine et Loire), and have been divided by 
M. Thieullen into triangular or amygdaloid, concave cres- 
centic, bevelled beak, cocked hat, disk, slice of melon, 
knite, piercer, diamond, cupola, and keel shapes. If the 
classification suggested above into Indian and other 
varieties be adhered to, it would appear that the French 
forms embrace both categories. 

Instances of the overlapping of the latter Stone with the 
Bronze period have already been given in connection with 
the subject of bored-axes, arrow-heads, and saws, and 
a few more observations must now be made on the same 
point. Professor Ridgeway^ has pointed out that in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy there are stone axes 
which undoubtedly exhibit in the shape of their faces the 
influence of those made of metal, and he suggests that 
they may have been the property of poor men who could 
not afford the more expensive metallic article. Instances 
of the same kind are to be seen elsewhere, and particularly 
in the so-called ceremonial axes, made for show or for 
ritual purposes, and not for use. Some of these, which have 
been found in Denmark, are ornamented with raised lines, 
just like those on the bronze celts which they imitate. 
They are provided at one end, not at the centre, with 
a small hole, capable of receiving quite a thin stick. 
These were clearly made purely for show, and belong 
to the Bronze, or, perhaps, even to the early Iron Age. 
In other cases they are made of a stone so soft as to prove 
that no serious use was contemplated when they were 
manufactured. Bracers are flat pieces of stone, e.g. 
chlorite, pierced with two small holes at either end, and 

^ Early Age of Greece, p. 295, 



are supposed to have been worn on the wrist to shield 
it against injury from the bow-string when shooting 
arrows. These objects may belong to the Neolithic as well 
as to the Metallic age. Spindle-whorls, sometimes called 
Pixies' grindstones, used for winding the thread in the 
operations of spinning (see Fig. 38), are very common 
objects, belonging not merely, if at all, to the Stone Age. 


Some allusion should be made to the fact that in some 
districts many varieties of implements may be found, 
whilst in others the range of examples is much more 
limited. This has already been exemplified in the case of 
the pigmy implements, generally found by themselves, 
except at Lakenheath, a district where every archaeological 
find, from pal^eoliths to objects belonging to the Anglo- 
Saxon period, has been made. On the Cotswolds, as 
Canon Greenwell points out, few, if any, celts have been 
found, though many arrow-heads have been picked up. 
On the other hand, in Kent and Sussex, and, generally 
speaking, in the district south of the Thames, arrow-heads 
are rare, whilst celts are met with, at least in places, in 
considerable numbers. 


THE Italian archaeologists describe, under the name 
of the ^neolithic period, an epoch when copper, in 
a pure and unalloyed condition, and stone were the 
materials out of which the implements of the time were 
manufactured. That such a stage was passed through, at 
least, in some parts of the world, there seems little reason 
to doubt, though it was probably not a universal ex- 
perience. In his account of interments by cremation in 
Derbyshire, Mr. Jewitt^ states, " In some instances I have 
found the lead ore, which occurs in veins in the limestone 
formation of Derbyshire, so completely smelted with the 
heat that it has run into the crevices among the soil and 
loose stones, and looks, when dug out, precisely like 
straggling roots of trees." He suggests that the dis- 
covery of lead may be traced to this accident, and one 
may at least offer the conjecture that the first acquaintance 
of man with copper may have come about in some similar 
manner. At any rate, as Mr. Gowland has pointed out,^ 
the first ores found by man would be those off the surface 
of the crround or in the beds of streams. These would 
be mostly carbonates or oxides of the metal, even if at 
deeper layers they presented themselves as sulphides. It 
seems probable that copper may have been discovered 

^ Grave-7not(?ids and the if Contents, p. 31. 
^ ArchcEologia, Ivi. 267. 



independently in many different places and at different 
dates, though, no doubt, there were instances in which 
the knowledge of the metal was introduced to people 
unacquainted with it by persons of another district. On 
the date of the making of such a discovery, and on the 
character of the ore hit upon, hang several consequences. 
In the first place, the earlier the discovery of the metal the 
shorter the Stone Age in the district. Myres^ thinks that 
Cyprus was the first place in the Mediterranean area in 
which copper was worked. Hence he points out that the 
Stone Age there was apparently very short, and that the 
Copper Age was contemporary with a large part of that 
of stone elsewhere. The copper Cypriote celts are, as he 
shows, plain, unflanged, and of shapes like those of stone, 
shapes few and simple, and showing little change of 
form throughout the series. Then, again, the occurrence 
or non-occurrence of a copper age seems to depend upon 
the character of the ore found in any given district. If a 
pure ore, the manufacture of objects in unmixed copper 
may be expected to have taken place before bronze makes 
its appearance. But if the ore is one in which copper 
exists together with some other metal capable of form- 
ing a bronze with it, then the stage of pure copper 
implements may be entirely absent. In Cyprus and 
Crete the metal is found pure, hence the first celts 
there are of copper, which can be hardened by hammer- 
ing in an unalloyed condition. A copper age also 
existed in Spain^ and in Brittany,^ and in America* 
many objects of wrought copper have been found, 
the Lake Superior copper mines in the States of 
Wisconsin and Michigan appearing to have been the 
centre of manufacture. In the neighbourhood of Lake 
Superior cutting implements of a form similar to those 

^ Journal Anthrop. Inst., xxvii. 171. ^ Siret, L Anthropologic, iii. 385. 
•^ L' Anthropologie, xv. 394. ■* \\'ilsoii, Prehistoric Art, 499. 


of st(jne were made, though the author just quoted from 
does not lay claim to the existence of a distinct period of 
copper in America. 

Coming to our own countries, there certainly is a 
distinct series of copper celts in Ireland, as has been 
proved by Coffey,^ who has, moreover, shown that there 
is good reason for believing that they are the earliest 
forms, and not produced in a given district because in 
that district there was a lack of tin or other metal 
suitable for forming a hard alloy. At one end of the 
series, he says, are rude and heavy forms, which look 
backward to the stone axe, at the other forms which 
approach more and more closely the early bronze celts. 
England and Scotland, on the other hand, have been 
thought to show little evidence of any such stage. It 
has, in fact, been asserted that no such thing as a pure 
copper implement has been found in this country. Coffey, 
however, calls attention to four specimens discovered in 
England and the same number in Scotland. Other speci- 
mens found in barrows have turned out to be copper, 
though formerly thought to be bronze, but it must be 
admitted that so far the examples in this island proved 
to be pure copper are rare. Gowland has shown that the 
reason of this is that in England copper occurs with tin, 
just as in Hungary it occurs with antimony, either of 
which metals can be used to make a hard alloy with it. 
Hence the absence of a pure copper age in those countries. 
From this difference in the ores and resulting bronzes it 
has also been claimed that the discovery of the metal was 
made independently in a number of different countries. 
On the other hand, Sergi- claims that the knowledge 
originated in Cyprus and thence spread to a number of 
the countries around the Mediterranean. "In 1895," he 

' Journ. Anth. Inst., ii. 206; iv. 265. See also a paper by same author 
on "Copper Halberds in Ireland," in Pi-oc. R. I. Acad., xxvii. 1908. 
- Mediterranean Race, p. 278. 


writes, " I had already written that the origin of the use 
of metals in the Mediterranean may be found in Cyprus, 
the island of copper ; thence its use was diffused through 
other Mediterranean regions, and through the Black Sea, 
and thence probably by the Danube into Hungary. To- 
day the fact that Cyprus was the centre of diffusion of 
copper and then of bronze throughout the Mediterranean 
and Europe generally, seems confirmed by new dis- 
coveries, and by explorers like Ohnefalsch-Richter and 
Myres, who have been able to show the contemporaneous 
existence, at least in part, of the Copper Age in Cyprus 
with the late Neolithic period in other regions ; as like- 
wise it seems to be shown that the primitive types of axes 
came from this island, and were diffused throughout the 
Mediterranean and Europe." 

Montelius has divided the Bronze Age into five periods,^ 
the first of which is characterised by implements made 
of pure copper or of copper with a very small admixture 
of tin. His classification depends upon the facts as 
they concern France, and his first period is estimated to 
have lasted from about 2000 to 1850 B.C. The celts are 
of types copied from those of stone ; the sword is un- 
known ; this was the period of dolmens and allces 
couverteSy and that to which a great many of the Swiss 
lake villages may be attributed. 

The second period, lasting from 1850 to 1550 B.C., is one 
in which the bronze often contains as much as 10 per cent, 
of tin. The celts have straight borders, generally very 
slightly raised ; triangular daggers were made, but no 
true swords ; burial, as in the first period, was by inhu- 

The third period, 1550 to 1300 B.C., was characterised 
by celts with raised edges, palstaves, and swords. In- 
humation and cremation were both practised. 

' L' Anthropologie , xii. 609. 


The Joifr/h period lasted from 1300 to 1050 B.C., and the 
fif//i from 1050 to 850 B.C., when the Early Iron Age may 
be said to have commenced. During these two periods 
the skill of artificers in bronze greatly increased, and 
many fine objects were constructed. The swords with 
horns to their handles and oval pommels were made 
during the latter part of this time. It must, of course, 
be borne in mind that any attempt to assign exact dates 
to such divisions as these can only be of a highly tenta- 
tive character. 

Objects of bronze have been found as isolated dis- 
coveries, as parts of the funeral gifts laid up with the 
remains of the dead in entombments, and in hoards, of 
which a few words must now be said. A hoard is a 
collection of bronze implements, with or without raw 
material, and a list of the principal discoveries of this 
class in England is appended to this chapter. Some of 
these hoards may have been temple-treasure, perhaps 
votive offerings, like the great collection discovered in 
Bologna in 1871. Here 14,800 bronze objects were 
brought to light in an earthenware vase. With them 
were also a few scraps of iron, showing, as did also the 
character of the bronze implements, amongst which were 
flanged, socketed, stopped, and looped celts, an axe with 
a transverse hole for its handle, chisels, gouges, horse- 
bits, fibulce, etc., that the collection belonged to quite 
the end of the bronze period, perhaps about 1000 B.C. 
No hoards which can reasonably be assigned to this class 
seem to have been discovered in this country. 

A second class of hoard was that secreted by some 
private person when obliged to leave his ordinary place 
of habitation for a time. Such temporary caches must 
often have been resorted to, and, no doubt, in many cases, 
on the return of the owner, the implements were dis- 
interred and once more put to use. But in other cases 


the hoard was never recovered by its original owner, and 
has lain undisturbed and undiscovered to our own time. 
A third group may be looked upon as the stock-in-trade 
of a dealer, for the objects of which such hoards consist 
are numerous, ready for use, and sometimes comprise a 
number of implements of exactly similar size and shape. 
The fourth class of hoard is that of the bronze-caster 
himself, and consists of rough lumps of more or less pure 
copper, worn-out implements ready to be remelted, and 
sometimes the moulds in which the implements were to 
be cast. 

Of the private hoard, that discovered a few years 
ago at Westbury-on-Trym ^ may be taken as an ex- 
ample. This small collection, consisting of three celts 
and a very remarkable bronze chisel, was found in a 
place called Coombe Dingle, not far from which are 
remains of earthworks and other traces of an early 
occupation. A hole in the bank of a stream is the 
sort of place which would naturally be selected as a 
temporary hiding-place. Of the manufacturer's stock-in- 
trade class numerous examples might be given. At 
Clohars-Carnoet in Finistere 203 bronze celts were found 
together. Quite recently at Cwmdugold, near Machyn- 
lleth, eighteen celts were found of three different sizes, 
clearly an example of the same kind. Then there is the 
great Dowris hoard, part of which is now in the British 
Museum. This collection, apparently from the nature of 
some of the objects comprised in it, belonging to a late 
part of the period, contained trumpets, socketed celts, 
tanged knives, razors, bells, a sword, spear-heads, and 
other articles. Of the fourth class I may mention an ex- 
ample now in the Museum of the University of Birming- 
ham. This example came from Hanwell in Middlesex, 
and consists of about thirty pounds weight of nearly pure 

' Proc. Sor. Anf., xviii. 236. 


copper. The exact analysis, which I owe to the kindness 
of my colleague, Professor Turner, shows the following 
constituents in addition to copper : — 

Sulphur . 

. o'863 per cent, 


. 0-079 >> 


. 0-038 

Tin, antimony, zinc, and nickel, were tested for, but 
not found. With the rough masses of which this part of 
the hoard w^as made up was a single imperfect socketed 
and ringed celt. This appears to consist of bronze, but 
has not been assayed. 

In the case of hoards of this class the rough masses of 
metal almost always consist of pure, or nearly pure, 
copper. The tin w^hich was to have been mixed with it 
was generally in the condition of cassiterite, which has 
been overlooked by the discoverers. 

•It is now time to give some description of the more 
important objects made in bronze, and in this chapter 
attention will mainly be paid to such examples as may be 
strictly confined to the bronze period proper. Some other 
objects will find a place at a later period in connection 
with the account which will be given of the Early Iron 
Age and its manufactures. 

Celts. — As in the case of neolithic implements, so here 
the most prominent and characteristic object is the axe- 
head or celt, of which several distinct varieties exist. 

Flat Celts. — Axe-heads resembling in many particulars 
those of stone, and possessing neither flanged edges nor 
sockets for the reception of a haft, are generally considered 
to have been the earliest efforts at casting of the bronze 
period, and the copper celts already alluded to conform to 
this type. Apart from the fact that man w^ould be most 



likely to make the new implement after the type of that 
with which he was familiar, the difficulties presented in 
the casting of such a tool would be much less than those 
connected with a flanged or socketed implement. In 
fact, the simple flat celt 
could be cast in a one- 
sided mould either of 
stone or of sand, and its' 
roughnesses afterwards 
diminished by hammer- 
ing or rubbing down. 
In Fig. 39 will be seen 
an example of this kind 
of implement, an imple- 
ment attached to its 
handle in the same man- 
ner as the neolithic celt, 
that is, by being forced 
through a hole in it. It 
will be noticed that the 
cutting edge of this im- 
plement is considerably 
expanded. This is a char- 
acteristic observable in a 
very large number of 
these objects, and may be looked upon as an early 
departure from the stone type with straight sides. These 
celts are sometimes ornamented with patterns of a geo- 
metrical character, not effected in the casting, but pro- 
duced by the action of a punch. 


Flanged Celts. —The shape here does not differ in any 
important respect from that of the flat celt with expanded 
end, but there is a flange along each side of the imple- 
ment, sometimes raised by hammering, sometimes pro- 


duced in the casting. These are also at times ornamented 
with geometrical patterns not only on the faces, but on 
the flanges also. Sometimes there is a stop-ridge half- 
way down the head extending transversely between the 
two flanges. This seems to be a stage in the development 
of the next form. 

Palstaves. — Sir John Evans limits the use of this term 
to two classes of implements, (i.) Winged celts with the 
wings hammered over so as to form what may be called 
external sockets to the blade. This kind of tool is rare in 
England, but Fig. 41 gives an example from Italy. The 
idea of hammering over the edges is the 
same as that applied to the socketing of 
garden rakes and other tools at the present 
day, and may be seen applied also to a bronze 
arrow-head in the British Museum, the differ- 
ence being that in the case of the last-men- 
tioned objects the socket is single, whilst in 
that of the celt it is divided into two parts, 
one on either side of the blade, (ii.) Winged 
celts, with the portion of the blade which lies 
between the side flanges and above the stop 
thinner than that which is below. This is 
the common implement known by the name 
of palstave, and shown in Fig. 40. Some- 
times it has a ring on one side for the 
purpose of enabling it to be lashed to the 
handle, and thus more securely fixed in 
position. The palstave is often ornamented 
with raised patterns of geometrical character 
produced in the casting. It may have been 
fixed at rig-ht ane^les to the handle by attach- 

FIG. 40 ^ ^ - . -^ 

BRONZE PAi STAVE "^^^^ to 3. portiou of thc haft placed in 
Prittany (i) rcspect to tlic rcst, as the handle of a walk- 



ing-stick is to the stick itself. In this case the palstaff 
would have acted rather as an adze than an axe. Or it 
may have been fixed into the end of a straight stick, 
when it would assume the position occu- 
pied by the blade of a hoe or spade. It 
will be observed that in either case a 
portion of the blade was actually em- 
bedded in the handle, instead of the 
handle being embedded in it. In the 
first group the handle was embedded in 
the blade, but a part of the blade was 
also embedded in the handle. This 
form seems to have led up, as indeed 
it may easily have done, to the next 

Socketed Celts. — Implements with a 
hollow recess for the reception of the 
handle, of which Fig. 42 is an example. 
That these are derived from the class 
last dealt with is shown by the facts that 
(a) a socketed celt 
has been found with 
its socket divided* 
into two portions by 
a central septum, an 
obvious proof of des- 
cent from the winged 
celt with its wings 
hammered over, and 
id) by the fact that 
the outside of the 
sockets of socketed 
celts are not unfre- fig, 42, looped and sock- 


quently decorated imh (j) 

IIG. 41. 
Italian (1) 


with curved lines obviously representing the hammered- 
over wings of the earlier pattern (see Fig. 52 ^ and ^'^). 
Such skeuomorphs, or forms of ornament demonstrably 
due to structure, afford valuable evidence of the derivation 
of the socketed celt, and may be compared with the linear 
and pellet ornamentation on the surface of the blades of 
palstaves, perhaps the skeuomorphs of a former method 
of attaching the blade to the handle by cords ^ (see Fig. 
52^ and ^'^). The socketed celt is met with under various 
shapes, may have a ring at the side, as in Fig. 42, and 
may be ornamented, indeed often is ornamented, around 
its neck with rings, perhaps the skeuomorphs of lashings, 
or upon its surface with linear and other raised patterns 
(see Fig. 52 * ' ^°). Ornament produced by punches 
or hammers is almost entirely wanting, no doubt because 
the application of such kind of ornament to a hollow 
implement was difficult, if not inadvisable. 

Miniature and Ceremonial Celts. — In the case of the neo- 
lithic celts, it was noted that small implements, evidently 
unintended for actual use, have from time to time been 
found, and the same is true of the objects of the later age 
with which we are now concerned. A miniature bronze 
dagger or knife has been found in a barrow opened near 
Marlboro in 1907."' Celts made of bronze, but so thin as 
never to have been of any actual use, have been found by 
Mr. Hogarth in his excavations in the Dictyaean Cave in 
Crete. They have also been found at Dodona, at Hall- 
stadt, and in Mexico. In some of these situations it seems 
unreasonable to doubt that their purpose was votive, but 
they may have been made, at times, for children's toys, or 
perhaps even for use as money, for which purpose similar 
objects are now in vogue on the West Coast of Africa. 

Dagg'ers. — The dagger, which, very probably, also served 

^ Cf. Haddon, Evolution in Art, p. 75 et seq, 
^ Rev, H. G. O. Kendall, Afati, 1909, 21. 




the purposes of a knife, was an instrument early constructed 

after man had arrived at a knowledge of the use of bronze. 

Two distinct classes of dao-^rer can be distinefuished 

according to the manner in which the blade was attached 

to its handle, by tang or by rivets ; the latter 

appearing to be the more primitive implement. 

Of these, the earlier had thin flat blades, and 

were more or less triangular in shape, whilst 

later weapons were strengthened by a strong 

mid-rib, and sometimes presented some measure 

of ornamentation on the blade. Fig. 43 shows 

one of these daggers still attached to its original 

handle, an extremely rare example. The blade 

measures seven and a half inches, and the 

handle four. The latter overlaps the former by 

about an inch, and is secured to it by two 

bronze rivets about three-quarters of an inch 

in length. The handle is of horn. This object 

was found between nine and ten feet from the 

surface in a peat-bog near Castleisland in the 

County of Kerry. ^ Horn seems to have been 

a common material for the construction of the 

handle, and amongst other instances of its use, 

one may be quoted from Jewitt, '' where the 

portion of the blade of a bronze dagger, found pjc 4^ 

in a tumulus, presented near the rivet holes bronze dagger 

obvious signs of the grain of the horn which with handle 

had originally been attached to it. Sometimes 

the handle was of bone or wood, like one described by 

Dr. Thurnam, which was held together by thirty rivets 

of bronze, and strengthened at the end by an oblong 

bone pommel fastened with two pegs. It was decorated 

by dots incised in the surface of the wood, forming a 

1 Pror. Roy. Soc. Antiqs. Ireland, vii. 423. 
- Grai'C-mounds and their Contents, 24. 



border of double lines and circles between the heads of the 
rivets. A still more elaborate handle, on which a Vandyke 
pattern was formed by tiiousands of small gold rivets, each 
with a head no larger than that of an ordinary pin, was 
described by Hoare.^ Again, in some cases the hilt was 
made of bronze, and a few examples of this kind have been 
discovered in Ireland. Longer rapier-blade daggers have 
also been discovered. These, being of a later date than 
the shorter dagger, seem to form a kind of transition be- 
tween it and the sword. Chapes or terminals to scabbards 
which may have belonged to daggers or to sw^ords have 
been discovered, and in at least one case a complete dagger- 
sheath has come to light. This was found at Pilling 
Moss, measured eleven and a half by one and three-quarter 
inches, and had a bronze loop at the back through which a 
strap could be passed. Short scabbards like this may some- 
times have been for swords, the upper portion having been 
constructed of wood, but the loop in this case seems to 
prove that we have the whole of the object, and that it was 
intended for a dagger and not for the longer implement. 

Swords. — The leaf-shaped sword was certainly a weapon 
of the bronze period, though a late, rather than an early, 
specimen of work in that metal. The leaf-shaped sword 
was adapted for thrusting rather than cutting, as there was 
a danger of its breaking off short in a blow^ The bronze 
swords shown in use in Mycenaean designs are exhibited 
as employed in the thrust exclusively, in fact this is the 
case with all pictorial representations of the use of the 
sword in the Bronze Age.- There was a later bronze 
sword-blade which appears to have belonged to the Late 
Celtic period, but this was not leaf-shaped, but slightly 
tapering and with edges almost straight nearly to the 
point. The hilt was sometimes of bronze, and sometimes 
of plates of wood, or horn, or bone, riveted on to the metal. 
Those with hilts of bronze are rare in this country. 

' Ancient Wilis, i. 202. - See Ridg-eway, Early Age of Greece, p. 394. 



Spear-heads. — All the examples of this class, see Fig-. 44, 
which have been found in this country, and which are 
clearly recognisable as spear-heads, are cored, and have 
been made by persons thoroughly expert in the art of 
casting metal. Hence one may assume that 
they do not belong to the earlier part of the 
bronze period. Sir John Evans divides them 
into five classes, namely : (i.) Those which are 
simple and leaf-shaped, either long and narrow, 
or broad, and have holes in the socket through 
which to pass the rivets to fix them to the shaft, 
(ii.) Those which are looped, and have eyes on 
each side of the socket below, and on the same 
plane with the blade. Those are generally of the 
long, narrow, straight-edged kind, (iii.) Those 
with loops in the angles between the edge of 
the blade and the socket, (iv.) Those with side 
apertures and perforations through the blade. 
(v.) Those in which the base of each side of the 
blade projects at right angles to the socket, or is 
prolonged downwards so as to form barbs. In 
some cases the sockets of these weapons have 
been elaborately decorated with the chevron and 
other hatchings so characteristic of the art of 
the bronze period. 

The Wrekin (») 

Other articles. — A host of other objects, made 
of bronze, are to be seen in museums of pre- fig. 44. 
historic archceology, and accounts of them may 
be sought for in the great work of Sir John Evans. 
It will only be possible here to enumerate a few of these, 
whilst some others, of the nature of personal ornaments, 
will be dealt with in a later chapter. Chisels, gouges, and 
saws are amongst the tools of this material ; the latter 
class, however, being very rare, for up to 1885 only five 


examples had come to H^ht in this country.^ Mace- 
heads, halberds, and sickles (see Fig. 45), trumpets, 
bells, and shields may also be mentioned. Allusion has 
already been made to the fact that bronze arrow-heads 

Swiss Lake Village (3) 

are of rare occurrence in this country. This seems to be 
the rule in all countries north of the Alps, where such 
arrow-heads as have been found of this material appear 
to belong to the late Celtic rather than to the bronze 
period. In Spain, metal arrow-heads seem to have been 
in vogue from a very early period. These range from 
simple bars of copper, flattened and sharpened at one 
end, to lozenge-shaped and triangular, tanged, and 
tanged and barbed, Montelius' states that many bronze 
arrow-heads have been found in Egypt. These may be 
tanged, or barbed, or both, and some of them are 
socketed, the socket being formed by the folding over of 
the lower part of the blade. An example of an arrow- 
head of this kind found in France is in the British 
Museum. There is also found in Egypt a three-edged, 
socketed, bayonet type, which is met with not only in 
that country, but also in Arabia and in vSicily. 

For a full account of the methods pursued in the casting 
of the objects dealt with in this chapter, the reader must 

' Proc. Soc. Antujs., xi. 12. - L'Anthwpolugie, i. 44. 


be referred to Sir John Evans' pages. Here it will not be 
possible to do more than to quote from them the summary- 
given as to the various modes employed. Objects were 
cast — 

(i.) In a single mould formed of loam, sand, stone, or 
metal, the upper surface of the casting exhibiting the flat 
surface of the molten metal, which was left open to the air. 
In the case of loam or sand castings, a pattern or model 
would be used, which might be an object already in use, or 
made in the desired form in wood or other soft substance. 

(ii.) In double moulds of similar materials. The castings 
produced in this manner when in unfinished condition show 
the joints of the moulds (this may be noticed in Fig. 40). 
When sand was employed a frame or flask of some kind 
must have been used to retain the material in place when 
the upper half of the mould was lifted off the pattern. 
The loam moulds were probably burnt hard before being 
used. In many cases cores for producing hollows in the 
casting were employed in conjunction with these moulds. 

(iii.) In what may be called solid moulds. For this 
process the model was made of wax, wood, or some com- 
bustible material, which w^as encased in a mass of loam, 
possibly mixed with cow-dung or vegetable matter, which 
on exposure to heat left the loam or clay in a porous condi- 
tion. This exposure to fire also burnt out the wax or wood 
model and left a cavity for the reception of the metal, which 
was probably poured in while the mould was still hot.^ 

The following list contains the hoards of bronze imple- 
ments which have been found in this country, so far as 
they are within my knowledge. For the bulk of these 
I am indebted to the pages of Sir John Evans' work, and 
for the references to these its pages must be consulted. 

^ It is possible that the lead celts which have, though rarely, been dis- 
covered, were cast inside bronze moulds, in which frag:ments of lead have 
been found adhering-, and were used as models for making' clay moulds upon. 
In these clay moulds the ordinary bronze celt might then be cast. See 
Clark, Proc. Soc. Ayitiquaries, ii. xx. 258. 


The remainder have the references added to them. The 
hoards are arranged not according to their character, as 
has been done in the work just alkided to, but according 
to the plan pursued in this book, under the counties in 
which thev have been found. 


Wicken Fen. 

Wilburton Fen {Proc. Soc. 
Ant.y 1882, 112). 

St. Hilary. 

Bedford. — Wymington. 

Berkshire — 
Hagbourn Hill. 

Cambridgeshire — 
Burwell Fen. 
Fulbourn Common. 
Reach Fen. 

Cheshire. — Broxton. 

Cornwall — 

Kenidjack Cliff. 

Devonshire — 

Bloody Pool, South Brent. 

Dorsetshire. — Weymouth. 


Heathery Burn Cave. 

Essex — 
Greys, Thurrock {Proc. Soc. 

An/., xvi. 327). 
Hatfield, Broad Oak {id. 96). 
Hig-h Roding-. 

Gloucestershire. — Westbury-on-Trym {Proc. Soc. Ant., xviii. 

Plymstock (Worth). 



Shoebury {Proc. Soc. An/., 
xiv. 174). 

South Church, near South- 
end {n/. xvi. 98). 



Hampshire — 

Arreton Down, Isle of 


Hereford. — Broadward. 

Hertfordshire — 
Cumberlow, Baldock. 
Danesbury, Welwyn. 

Kent — 

Allhallows, Hoo. 

Ebbsfleet, Isle of Thanet 
{Proc. Sac. Aiif., xiv. 309). 

Haynes Hill, Saltvvood. 

Hundred of Hoo. 
Lancashire. — Winmarleigh, Garstang- 

Pear Tree, near Southamp- 
ton [Proc. Soc. A71L, xvii. 
1 29). 

Woolmer, New Forest. 

Westwick Row, 


Isle Harty, Sheppey. 

Leicestershire. — Beacon Hill, Charnwood Forest. 

Lincolnshire — 

Branston Hall {Proc. Soc. 

AnL, ii. XX. 3). 

Middlesex — 

Bromley-by-Bow (Proc. Soc. 

Ant, xix. 13). 
Hanwell (Univ. Birm. Mu- 

Norfolk — 

Carleton Rode. 






Little Cressingfham. 

West Halton. 


Southall (Proc. Soc. An/., 
xvi. 327). 





Stoke P'erry. 




Northumberland — • 

Thrunton Farm, Whittiny;-- 


Nottinghamshire — 

Newark (near). | Nottingham. 

Oxfordshire. — Burgesses' Meadow. 

Shropshire — 

Battlefield, near Shrews- 
Ebnall, near Oswestry. 

Somerset — 

Edington, Burtle. 
Heath House, Wedmore. 
Quantock Hills. 
Sherford, Taunton. 

Staffordshire. — Greensborough Farm, Shenstone. 


Felixstowe {Proc. Soc. Ant., 
xi. 8). 

Surrey — 
Beddlestead {Proc. Soc. AnL, 

Little Wenlock. 
Porkington, near Oswestry. 

West Buckland. 
Wick Park, Stogursey. 


Postlingford Hall, Clare. 

Farley Heath. 

Sussex — 

Beachy Head, Eastbourne. 
Hollingbury Hill, Brighton. 

Westmorland. — Ambleside. 

Yorkshire — 
Earsley Common. 

Kingston Hill. 
Wandle River. 
WMckham Park, Croydon. 



Hotham Carr. 
Roseberry Topping. 




SAVE where they are found with other undisturbed 
and undoubted relics of the period, there is often 
a difticuhy in deciding whether a bone implement 
belongs to an early or a comparatively recent period. 
Take, for example, the pointed implements, made from 
a limb bone of some large animal, which are found along 
the Thames, and of which many have been discovered 
in the neighbourhood of Southwark Bridge. These might 
be a kind of spear-head of an early date, or they may, 
perhaps, even still more likely, be the points for the ends 
of the poles with which, in the Middle Ages, the skater 
propelled himself, on his bone skates, along the ice. 
But where implements have been found in caves mixed 
up with other objects of whose period there can be no 
doubt, as is the case in many instances, then we may 
at once accept them as belonging to that period. It is 
generally held as a fairly well-established fact that work 
in bone did not begin until a somewhat late period of the 
Palasolithic age, or at least that if it did, we have no relics 
left of an earlier date, which would be a somewhat strange 
thing had the industry really existed. Thieullen has, 
however, recently found at Chelles some worked pieces 
of bone which he believes to belong to the same very early 



part of the Palaeolithic age as the stone implements dis- 
covered in the same place. If this observation be corrobo- 
rated, then we shall be obliged to assign an earlier date 
for the known commencement of work in bone than has 
hitherto been allowed. But at least this may be said, that 
there is no evidence of any considerable amount of work 
in bone until the period called by Mortillet the Mag- 
dalenian and described in Fischer's classification (p. 8) 
as Papalian, from the Grotto du Pape at Bassempouy, 
where characteristic objects in bone have been found. 
As his classification chiefly depends upon the character 
of the art, it will be dealt with more fully in the next 
section of this chapter. Meantime, at this point it will 
be convenient to consider some of the implements made 
in bone and horn during this and the periods which suc- 
ceeded it. 

Harpoons. — Harpoons, or, as they are also called, 
javelin-heads, form a characteristic series of objects of 
the Magdalenian period in France, and have been found 
also in British caves, such as Kent's Hole. But there 
is a larger series available in France, and we are indebted 
to the labours of M. Piette thereon for our knowledgfe 
of the varieties and sequence of these objects.^ The char- 
acteristic Magdalenian harpoon, he thinks, consisted of 
two parts — a wooden shaft, and a head made of reindeer 
or stag horn, provided with barbs on one or both sides, 
which was attached to the shaft by a cord. During the 
first, or equidian, portion of the Magdalenian period the 
climate was dry and cold, there was no great amount 
of water about, and, therefore, no great demand for 
harpoons ; nevertheless, one fragment of what was prob- 
ably a harpoon was found in the stratum belonging to 
this date at Mas d'Azil. At a later date, when the rein- 

^ L' Anthropologic, vi. 283. 



deer had become the prominent animal in the fauna, the 
climate was damper, and many harpoons appear. At first 
the butt-end of these was pointed, but this was open to 
the inconvenience that the cord attaching the head to the 
shaft could easily slip off. 
So the end was truncated, 
and still later a flange was 
made on either side of the 
shaft a short distance above 
the base, so as to give a 
good hold to the cord. This 
seems to have been the best (/ //iiii'f 
and the latest type (see Fig. 
46^). In the later part of 
the Cervidian period, when 
the reindeer was gradually 
migrating north, the red- 
deer arrived. The man of 
the period endeavoured to 
manufacture, on the old 
lines, harpoons from his 
horns, but the result was 
not a success, because they 
were only hard on the out- 
side. It was obvious that 
some other plan would have 
to be tried, and consequently 
a kind of oval-flattened har- ^"'- ^^^ 

poon, with a hole at the 
base for the cord, and two rows of barbs, was devised 
(Fig. ^6d). On this followed various experimental forms, 
which narrowed themselves down to two types, found at 
Mas d'Azil in the stratum of the coloured pebbles, (i) An 
implement with a single row of barbs, with an oval or 
lozenge-shaped hole. This disappeared and left only (2) a 

French (j) 


flat oval harpoon, with an oval hole and two rows of 
pointed barbs almost parallel with the base (see Fig. 466) 
and with no ornament to weaken it. This is found in 
the shell-layer, though most of the bone implements in 
that stratum have been destroyed by fire. The harpoon 
is not found in the polished stone layers, for by this time 
man had learnt how to make a fish-hook. From the 
remains of some of the Swiss lake villages harpoons and 
polished stone implements have been extracted together, 
and it is possible that their use may have been simul- 

Javelins and Javelin-throwers. — It is possible that some 
of the pointed implements of bone may have been the 
heads of javelins, indeed, some of the objects called 
harpoons by M. Piette, are described in the British 
Museum Guide under the former name, and the wedge- 
shaped butt is said to have been so constructed for the 
purpose of fastening it into the shaft. So much do 
opinions differ as to the use of the same object. At any 
rate, there can be no doubt that javelin-throwers were in 
existence, for one was found at La Madelaine ornamented 
with carvings in the round of horses' heads, which in 
general details quite resembles similar implements used 
by the natives of Australia and the North-West Coast of 
America for the purpose of increasing the leverage of the 
arm in casting a spear. 

Dress-fasteners. — These objects, of which an example 
is shown in Fig. 47, were long known under the fanciful 
name of " batons de commandement," or sceptres, and 
were supposed to have been emblems of authority like a 
Field- Marshal's baton. Schoetensack^ has, however, 
shown that they were a means of keeping together the 

^ L' Anthropulugie, xii. 140. 


cloak or skin robe, and that si mikar objects are used in that 
way by the Esquimaux to the present day. A thin cord, 
to each end of which was fastened transversely a little bit 
of stick, is brought round the neck over the robe. The 

La Madelaine 

two pieces of stick are then passed through the hole in the 
implement and the cloak is secured. Where there are 
several holes the object may have been to permit of the 
cloak being more or less closely brought together after the 
manner of the chain supplied with the modern Inverness 

Some of the simpler forms of ''baton de commande- 
ment," unprovided with holes, have been identified with 
the "Pogamagan," or strikers, of the North American 
Indians, by a writer in Nature^ who states that on the 
mural monument of Colonel Townshend on the south side 
of the nave of Westminster Abbey, there is a figure of a 
North American warrior with a pogamagan in his hand. 
Smaller dress-fasteners, made from the articulating end 
of a small animal bone, have been described by Green- 
welP and others. The object described and figured by 
the Canon was a calcined bone pin \% inch long, with a 
large eye in the head a quarter of an inch in diameter, 
discovered in a barrow in the North Riding of Yorkshire. 

' British Barroivs, 352, 


Needles. — These valuable implements, made of bone, 
have been found in the French caves and in Kent's Hole. 
A series with the implements used in their manufacture 
is exhibited in the British Museum, and figured in 
the Guide. From the bone selected for the purpose, a 
splinter was first detached, and this was then carefully 
rounded with the aid of a flint made after the pattern of a 
small-toothed concave scraper. The point was fashioned, 
and the whole of the needle polished, by a burnishing stone 
of sandstone. A pointed flint served as the drill for making 
the eye. In some cases the needles seem to have been 
made of a small round bone pointed and drilled. But it 
is clear that the points of these would not be as sharp 
or serviceable as those made from a splinter composed 
entirely of compact bone. 

Picks or hoes have been found, not only in prehistoric 
workings such as Grime's Graves, but also in tumuli^ in 
the excavation of which they may perhaps at times have 
been used. Chisels of horn have been found in the Swiss 
lake villages. Bone arrow-heads with traces of bitumen 
adhering to their bases, showing that this substance was 
used in attaching the head to the shaft, have been found 
in the same places. Tweezers of bone, perforated for 
hanging to the belt, were found by Bateman- in a barrow 
at Bailey Hill, in Derbyshire. Borers and implements 
like a small cigar, pointed at both ends, the use of which 
is rather doubtful, are other objects made of the same 


With the knowledge of bone as a workable article grew 
up a remarkable school of art, by no means one of the 
least interesting points in connection with this period of 
the world's history. The examples upon which our 

* Greenwell, op. cif., 231. '■' Ten Years' Digging, 170. 


knowledge of the subject is based have mainly been dis- 
covered in French caves ; one instance, so far, alone 
having been afforded by this country. They have been 
carefully studied by M. Piette,^ whose classification is 
given on p. g. The period in question is called by him 
the Glyptic, and is divided into two epochs, (i.) Equidian, 
again subdivided into Elephantine or Ivory, and Hippie. 
The fauna was of the Mousterian character, and the works 
of art included sculptures in the round, bas-reliefs and 
engravings with cut-out contours. In part this epoch 
may be said to correspond to that known in another 
classification as Solutrean. (ii.) Cervidian, again divided 
into the reindeer and red-deer ages. Save that the rein- 
deer, particularly in the first part of the time, existed in 
great numbers, and that there were also some circumpolar 
birds, the fauna of this period may be said to have closely 
corresponded to. that of the present day. During this 
time were executed simple engravings. It was also the 
period of the manufacture of needles and of rounded 
harpoons of reindeer horn. Sculpture on ivory preceded 
that upon bone and horn, but the former chiefly char- 
acterises stations near the sea, the latter those of the moun- 
tains. If the sculptures and engravings on mammoth 
tusks and those in relief be excluded from what is usually 
known as the Magdalenian period, then what is left of it 
may be said to correspond to Piette's Cervidian epoch. 
The rounded statuettes of the Grotte du Pape at Bassem- 
pouy, which the author just quoted places at the earliest 
part of the Glyptic period, are figurines of female type, 
one of the most important being that called the Venus of 
Bassempouy and figured with other examples in L' Anthro- 
pologies Unfortunately only the abdomen, hip, and right 
thigh of this figure have come down to us. Both abdo- 

^ L Anthropologic, v. 131 and vii. 2. A further important and admirably 
illustrated article by same writer dealing- with carvings on bone and particu- 
larly with the question of spiral ornamentation will be found in L'Anthro- 
pologie, XV. 129. - vi. 129, pi. i.-vil. 



men and buttocks are much accentuated, the latter being 
of the steatopygous type. Another female figure has been 
carved to form the handle of a dagger. Here the breasts 
were long and pendent, but the details of parts of the 
figure had been sacrificed to the necessities of the purpose 
to which the work was to be put. In all, seven female 
figurines were found at Bassempouy, one at Mas d'Azil, 
and one at Laugerie Basse. They were not all of the heavy 
type of those just described. There was a second series, 

Laugerie Basse (5) 

including the "figurine a la capuche," a statuette with a 
hood over the head, in which the figures were straight 
and thin, without protuberances and with very slight 
representations of flesh or muscle. Nude female figurines 
have been found in steatite at Mentone, and in marble at 
Troy, and on the Carian coast. It cannot, however, be 
said that all these are of anything like the same period, 
indeed, it has been suggested that the last-mentioned are 
crude imitations of the Chaldean type of Astarte. Per- 
haps the subject of human representations may here be dis- 
posed of, though the cases to be cited do not all belong to 
this early period. The "femme au renne" was found at 
Laugerie Basse, and is an engraving in cliamp-leve on a 
piece of reindeer horn. The figure is that of a pregnant 
woman lying on her back beneath a reindeer. Unfortun- 
ately the head of the female and the fore part of the beast 
have been lost by an old fracture of the horn. The figure 
of a man chasing bison is shown in Fig. 48, the carving 
having been executed on a piece of reindeer horn. It was 


found at Laugerie Basse. The well-known figure of the 
man with eel and horses' heads, part of a dress-fastener, 
was discovered at La Madelaine. An inartistically exe- 
cuted profile of the head alone has also been discovered 
at Laugerie Basse. Poor as all these representations of 
the human form are, they are superior to those bas-reliefs 
which have been found on the stones of dolmens ^ and in 
a sepulchral grotto.-^ In these cases the face is reduced to 
the superciliary ridges and nose with small eyes. The 
breasts and sometimes the arms are represented. Similar 
figures, reduced to representations of the breasts, have 
been found on menihirion in Sardinia. Mention should 
also be made of the extremely rude figures, with girdles, 
discovered by Abbe Hermet and described by Cartailhac.^ 
Some of these have beneath the girdles represented upon 
them what may be feet and legs, or may be the fringed 
ends of a stole-like garment. These figures, carved on 

FIG. 49. horses' heads CARVED IN ROUND ON BONE 
St. Marcel (J) 

blocks of sandstone and about four feet in height, were 
discovered in Aveyron, France. 

Returning now to the subject of the paleolithic w^orks 
of art one may at once admit that, if he represented him- 
self ineffectually, the man of the period was far more 
successful in his attempts to represent the animals which 

^ Cartailhac, L' Anthropologic , v. 147. 

'^ I)e Baye, L' ArchMogie Pr^historique, 159. PI. i. , ii., iii. 

^ L' Ajithropohgie, iii. 222. 


he saw around him. Of these works of art many have been 
discovered embracing a wide range of subjects. Of mam- 
mals there are representations of the mammoth, rhinoceros 
(atGourdan),Miorse(Fig. 49), reindeer {Fig. 50), cave-bear, 
urus, aurochs, deer, mountain goat, antelope, chamois, 
ass, wild-boar, wolf, fox, lynx, otter, seal, walrus, and 
rabbit, besides some others which are as yet undetermined. 
Amongst lish, the salmon (of which admirable pictures 
have been found at Lorthet in association with rein- 
deer), eel (if it is not, as some suggest, a serpent), trout, 

St. Marcel (ii) 

and pike have been drawn. A representation of a swan 
was found at Laugerie Basse and another excellent one at 
Gourdan. The works are executed on pieces of bone or 
horn, or sometimes stone, and the graving-tool was evi- 
dently a sharp-pointed piece of flint. Amongst the most 
celebrated of these gravings are those of the mammoth, 
on a portion of mammoth's tusk, of the reindeer by a pool 
of water, on a piece of reindeer horn, and of the cave-bear 
on a flat, oval pebble of schist, all of which are well known 
from numerous representations in books dealing with the 

' L' A II fhropulogie, xv. 147. 


su bject of preh istoric archaeology. For this reason 
it lias been thought better to give here a less 
well-known representation of the reindeer from 
St. Marcel (Fig. 50). The reindeer is the favourite 
object for representation, and is found fighting 
and dying, and as seen from front and side, 
and in all kinds of attitudes. M. Reinach^ has 
recently pointed out that all the animals, so far 
as we have at present knowledge, represented 
on the walls of caves or on pieces of bone, horn, 
etc., are those which would be hunted or fished 
for by a race of hunters and fishermen. All the 
undesirable animals, such as lions, tigers, etc. — 
for he believes the so-called cave-bear of Bruni- 
quel to have been a badly-drawn ruminant — are 
wanting. It is suggested — but this, of course, is 
pure theory — that the drawings may have been of 
a magical character, and had for their object the 
attraction of the species of game or fish which 
they represent.- In addition to the incised figures 
and those with cut-out outlines, the artist of the 
period attempted carvings in thefull or half-round 
in the regions of applied art. Amongst these 
some of the most interesting are the dagger 
handles. Dagger and handle in these cases (see 
Fig. 51) were made out of one continuous piece 
of reindeer horn, pointed at one end. Two ex- 
amples maybe mentioned, one of them, that repre- 
sented in the figure, a decided success, the other 
certainly, to our ideas, a failure. In the first ex- 
ample the artist has set himself the task of making 
an effective and comfortable handle to a dagger 
of reindeer horn, which handle shall represent 
the reindeer himself. Now a reindeer is an 

^ L Anthropologie, xiv. 257. 

^ M. Piette's paper in L' Anthropologie, xv. 129, seems to 
dispose of this theory, since he shows that among"st the animals 
represented in the caves were hyena, wolf, bear, and snake. 




animal with branching horns, and our artist had first 
of all to think how they are to be disposed of. Hence 
he represented his reindeer running' at full speed, head 
thrust far forward, so that the horns lie along his neck, 
where they are carved in high relief. The same pose 
enabled the artist to tuck the fore-legs -well away under 
the body, so that they shall not project and make the 
grip uncomfortable. And it enabled him to throw the 
hind-legs straight out behind so as to merge with the 
blade portion of the dagger. It is important, of course, 
that the point where the handle merges into the blade 
shall not be weak. Hence the artist has carved the 
hinder part of the animal where he meets the blade 
in high relief, and not in the full round, as the an- 
terior part is carved. The result is a dagger comfort- 
able to handle, and a very remarkable piece of work 
for the time it was made and the tools with which it 
was executed. The other dagger handle was to repre- 
sent the mammoth, not a very easy animal to work into 
a scheme of decoration, unless, perhaps, he had been 
carved on the handle in low relief. The artist, however, 
determined to try and execute him in the full round. He 
straightened the animal's tusks a bit, and brought them 
out along the blade, and so strengthens his junction. 
Thus he got out of one difficulty, but only to fall into 
another in connection with the legs. He could not well 
tuck these under the animal, and so he left them sticking 
straight out. The result is exceedingly inartistic, and 
ineffective too, for the implement when complete — the 
blade part has long been broken off — must have been most 
uncomfortable in the hand.^ This part of the subject can- 
not be left without some notice of the remarkable series of 

1 Those desirous of thoroughly studying- the interesting subject of the art 
of this early period may be referred to the valuable work by Wilson on 
Prehistoric Art published by the Smithsonian Institution. 


coloured pebbles discovered at Mas d'Azil by M. Piette, 
and fully described by him in U Anthropologie.^ The layer 
in which these objects have been found passes insensibly 
into the shell layer, and the objects themselves are water- 
worn pebbles, coloured with peroxide of iron, probably 
mixed with fat or resin. The representations on the 
pebbles are divided into three groups, (i) NiimberSy 
represented by («) parallel bands, {h) circles or disks in 
lines, (c) oval disks placed tangentially to the edges of the 
pebbles. Sometimes the borders of the lines are even, 
sometimes fringed. In no case are more than eight lines 
or other figures present on any one pebble. (2) Symbols, 
{a) the equilateral cross or + figure, {b) the solar disk, 
(c) the Tau cross, T. (3) Pictographs, (a) serpentine bands, 
(b) ladder-like figures, consisting of a single upright with 
a number of bars crossing it, (c) tree-like forms, (d) the 
eye, (e) harpoons, (/) reeds, (g) wavy line. The most 
interesting point in connection with these objects is their 
apparent connection with early alphabets, a point on 
which Piette says, " Nine of the Mas d'Azil graphic signs 
are identical with characters in the Cypriote syllabary : 
Ko, mo, pa, lo, si, ve, sa, ti, ta. Eight of the same signs, 
of which some are also Cypriote, form part of the Aegean 
alphabet. Many ancient inscriptions from Asia Minor 
also, especially from the Troad, present characters re- 
sembling the pictures from Mas d'Azil. Recognising in 
the Cypriote and Aegean alphabets, or in the writing 
in use in Asia Minor before the Trojan War, the characters 
of Mas d'Azil, there is ground for believing either that 
the invasions from the west to the east carried into these 
regions at a very ancient period the writing used in 
Pyrenasan districts, or that the rudimentary writing of 

1 vii. 384. The accompanying- portfolio of coloured figures gives a vivid 
idea of the whole series of finds. See also Piette, L Anthrop., 1903, 641 ; 
Cook, ib. ib., 655; and Lang, Ma7i, 1904, 22, for a discussion as to real 
meaning of these painted stones. 


Mas d'Azil was in Prehistoric times the common patri- 
mony of the Mediterranean littoral and the coasts of the 


No attempt can be made to enter in any detail into the 
art of these later periods, the decorative art, that is, for of 
the applied art of the late Celtic period some notice will 
be taken when that part of the subject is reached, but 
some comment must be made upon the contrast presented 
between the character of the older and the later forms of 
decoration. The former, whether those which have just 
been described, or the cavern decorations alluded to in an 
earlier chapter, consisted of graphic representations of 
animal and even of human life. Such representations 
are entirely wanting in the Neolithic period, and it is only 
in the latest examples of work in bronze that anything of 
the kind again appears. In place of these we find on the 
pottery of the Neolithic and bronze periods, and on the 
implements of the bronze, a wide range of ornament, but 
all of a geometrical character. It consisted of marks, lines 
or dots, impressed, incised, or raised, as a result of casting, 
in geometric forms, hatchings, zigzags, herring-bone 
work, chevrons, parallel lines and thumb-marks. Such 
geometric forms of design were not wanting during the 
Palaeolithic period, but they are quite overshadowed by 
the predominance of graphic art. On harpoons and points 
of bone we find geometric forms, probably because there 
was little room for the graphic representations which were 
utilised where there was more space at the command of 
the artist. Fig. 52 shows a few of these geometric forms, 
of which forty-six are given by Wilson.- **The decorative 
art of the Bronze Age," says Wilson, "was but a continua- 
tion of that of the Neolithic period, and it is not impossible 

^ For a further discussion of the alphabetical value of these and other 
ancient signs, see LAnthrop.^ xv. 163-164. ^ Plates 19 and 20. 



m ''' H 

ii J' UN 














•\ ' ' yj^ 




" V -^^^^ ' "^^^^^ 









i*'« «v» 




t V* 




, , 







A >; 

/- V 

/!■ V 


\ /■ ^ -« V 


1. 4, 7, 10. Ornament on bronze Celts 

2. Dolmen of Gavr'Inis 

3. Dots, lines and Vandyke on edge of bowl 

5. Spirals and concentric circles (slab of stone), 

Eday, Orkneys 

6. Herring-bone, dog-tooth, and twisted cord 

decoration (urn) 

8. Cup-markings, single and encircled, Ross- 
g. Twisted cord ornament (urn) 

11. Crossed lines of small dots arranged in 


12. Imitation of basket-work 


that an investigation into the origin of some of the speci- 
mens in plates 19 and 20 (from which most of the selected 
examples have been taken) would show them to have 
belonged to the Bronze Age ; that is to say, the styles of 
ornamentation of the two periods or ages were practically 
the same, and the latter was but a continuation of the 



former, with such possible changes or additions as would 
naturally grow." Amongst these forms of decoration 
there is one to which some special attention must be paid. 
These are the cup-and-ring markings which have attracted 
the attention of so many observers, and as to the meaning 
of which so many surmises have been made. The nature 
of these markings will be made sufficiently clear by Figs. 
52^^, and 53, and those who desire to pursue the sub- 
ject further may be referred to the works mentioned in the 

^ Sir J. Simpson, "Archaic Sculptures"; C. Rau, "Observations on 
Cup-shaped and other Lapidarian Sculptures in the Old World and in 
America," Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. v. ; Coffey, 


Sometimes there are a series of cups without further 
ornamentation ; sometimes the cups are surrounded by 
concentric lines ; or, again, in addition to these there is 
a radial groove. "Cup marks," says Coffey, "are widely 
distributed in Europe. They have been recorded from 
France, Switzerland, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Den- 
mark, Sweden, England, Scotland, and Ireland. Yet, 
with the exception of a few instances, cup-and-ring, or 
concentric circle sculptures, have not been recorded in 
Europe outside Sweden, Great Britain, and Ireland. The 
exceptions referred to are : a cupped stone near Bunsoh, 
Holstein, showing twenty-seven cups, three of which are 
surrounded by single rings ; a cupped stone, stated to 
have existed near Mels, St. Gall, Switzerland, unfortu- 
nately destroyed, one of the cups of which was enclosed 
bv two rings ; some examples of cup-in-ring and cross-in- 
circle markings, in association with cup-marks, on rock- 
surfaces in the Eringerthal, Valais, Switzerland ; an 
example of concentric rings on a rock-surface in the 
Meraviglie, Mentone ; and two or three examples on a 
surface in Galicia." And he continues: "This narrow 
distribution of cup-and-ring cuttings is emphasised by the 
fact that cup-and-ring marks with radial gutters are abso- 
lutely confined to Great Britain and Ireland." A list of 
the localities in which these markings have been observed 
in this country will be found at the end of this chapter. 
The spiral ornament may perhaps have reached Europe 
through the Aegean from Egypt. It has been found on 
scarabs of the fifth dynasty in Egypt, and in others of the 
twelfth at Crete (2700-2500 B.C.). 

" Origfins of Prehistoric Ornament in Ireland," /f^;c;-/; oj Roy. Soc. oj Atitiq. 
of Ireland, vol. iv. 349; v. 16, 195; vi. 34; and vii. 28. 




Bracelets, torques, pins, and some other objects of 
bronze will be dealt with in a later chapter. Here it is 
only intended to call attention to one or two classes which 
can be satisfactorily dealt with at this point. 


Gold. — An unusually large number of gold ornaments 
have been discovered in Ireland, and can be well studied 
in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy in Ireland. 
There seems little doubt that at an early period of history 
Ireland was the El Dorado of the western world, and there 
is abundant evidence that considerable quantities of gold 
have been obtained in Ireland, even in recent times.^ We 
need not doubt that the source of the extraordinary amount 
of gold converted into ornaments'- was purely native. 

^ Wakeiiian's Handbook, p. 241. 

^ For list, seejoitrn. Roy. Soc. Aniiq. Ireland, 1870-71, p, 509, and Cata- 
logue of Gold Ornaments, R. I. A. 


Jet. — Objects of tliis material have been found in tuumli 
in the shape of rings, buttons, and necklaces, the latter 
sometimes very elaborate pieces of work. Greenwell^ 
describes one consisting of one hundred and thirty beads, 
and Bateman - gives an account of another (see Fig. 54) 
which consisted of four hundred and twenty bits, consist- 
ing of three hundred and forty-eight laminae, fifty-four 
cylinders, and eighteen conical studs and perforated plates, 
the latter ornamented with punctured patterns. 

Beads of Ainber and of Glass also found in tumuli 
deserve mention in this place. 

' British Da7Toivs, p. 330. - Ten Years' Dig'ginc^, p. 24, 



Cumberland — 

" Long Meg" and her Daughters." Cf. p. 199. 
A circle near to this. 

Derbyshire. — High Hucklow. In barrow. 

Dorsetshire. — Came Down. Cupped stones in a barrow. 
(Warne, Celtic Tujiiuli of Dorset, p. 37.) 

Lancashire. — The Calder Stones. Cf. p. 201. 

Northumberland — 

Beanley, near "The Ringses." 

Bewick, double camp. 

Cartington Fell. 

Chatton Law Camp. 

Chirnells Moor, near Rothbury. 

Dod Law, near the double camp. 

Ford Common. In barrow. {British Barrotvs, 403-) 

Gled Law, near Dod Law. 

Hunter's Moor, near Rowting Lynn. 

Lord-in-Shaws Camp. 

Morwick Mill, near. Vale of Coquet. 
* Rowting Lynn. 

Stamfordham, near Black Haddon. In barrow. {British 
Biwroivs. ) 

Weetwood Bridge, near the camp. 

Whitton Dene, near Rothbury. (Cf. "Ancient Sculp- 
tured Stones of Northumberland," Trans. Berwick 
Naturalists'' Club, v. 137.) 

Yorkshire — 

Claughton Moor. Cupped stones in round barrow. Cf. 

p. 171. 
Kilburn Moor. {British Barrows, 329.) 
Way Hag, Ayton Moor. (British Barrows, p. 342.) 
Wykeham Moor. Cf. p. 173. 


UNDERGROUND are all great treasures and 
wonderful things," says Rabelais, and his saying 
may be applied to the tombs and cemeteries of the 
bygone races of this country, so far as archaeologists are 
concerned. For they have been most fruitful in affording 
information as to the habits of those wlio constructed 
and were deposited in them. As far as their physical 
characters are concerned, the examination of the skeletons 
exposed has taught us almost all that we know in that 
respect. And the custom of burying various things with 
the body of the departed, a custom perhaps based upon 
the idea that the gifts deposited would be useful to the 
spirit of the dead person in another world, has led to the 
storing up in burial mounds and graves of a varied series 
of objects, examples of which are preserved in many 
museums, objects which throw more light upon the posi- 
tion and habits of their former owners than perhaps any 
other discoveries which have been made. These "accom- 
panying gifts" vary in number and character according to 
the race and period, and they will be dealt with more fully 
further on. The harvest of knowledge which has been 
g-athered from the examination of burial mounds is so 
great that the information to be given here must neces- 
sarily be very much compressed and confined t(j the more 
important points. For further information reference may 



be made to the works in the footnote.^ Before turning to 
the varieties of barrow two preliminary points have to be 
dealt with. 

Cremation and Inhumation. — As at the present day, so 
in earlier ages, two methods of disposing of the bodies of 
the dead were practised, ordinary burial or inhumation 
and burning, with subsequent deposition of the ashes in 
a grave mound, cyst, or urn-field. The method of burial 
by inhumation seems always and everywhere to have been 
the earlier. After it came a period when, as now, both 
inhumation and cremation were practised at the same 
time, the difference being perhaps due to racial, perhaps 
to religious, distinctions. But cremation never seems in 
any place to have had the universal vogue that inhuma- 
tion had before the introduction of the later method. 
According to Sergi,'- the former was the primitive method 
of the Mediterranean race, the latter the introduction of 
the Aryans. On the comparative occurrence of the two 
methods many statistics are available. Thus in the 
Etruscan tombs inhumation is the invariable rule. In 
Cyprus cremation is unknown, even in the Bronze Age. 
Inhumation was also practised in Spain during the 
copper and bronze periods, and it was the recognised 
method of the Guanches. On the other hand, cremation 
was practised by those who constructed the terramare 
of Italy and the well-tombs of Certosa, Bologna, and else- 
where where inhumation is almost unknown. In the Rhoe- 
tian cemetery of Vadena none but cremated bodies were 
found. In France and in the Swiss lake villages during 
the stone period inhumation was the rule, cremation 

^ Greenwell, British Barroivs and " Recent Researches in Barrows," 
Arcliceologia, lii. ; Bateman, Ten Years' Digging; Jewitt, "Grave Mounds 
and their Contents " ; Thurnam, papers on long and round barrows in 
Archceologia, vol. xlv. ^ Mediterranean Race, pp. 266 and 286. 



coming in with the Bronze Age. In the cemeteries of 
Glasinatz and Hallstadt, belonging to the early Iron Age, 
both practices are met with. At Hallstadt, of 525 burials 
455 were after cremation. In Britain both methods are 
met with during the Neolithic and bronze periods, the 
proportions varying in different parts of the country. 
Thus Greenwell says :^ "In Derbyshire the proportion 
is slightly in favour of burnt bodies ; in Wiltshire burnt 
bodies are as three to one unburnt ; in Dorsetshire as 
four to one ; and in Cornwall cremation seems to have 
been by far the most common usage. In the counties of 
Denbigh, Merioneth, and Caernarvon cremation seems to 
have been almost universal. In Northumberland I have 
disinterred seventy-one bodies, and of these forty-five 
were after cremation, and twenty-six by inhumation — the 
proportion of burnt to unburnt bodies being, therefore, 
almost two to one." 

Primary and Secondary Interments. — As to the mean- 
ingf of the first of these two terms there can be no manner 
of doubt ; the primary interment was that of the first 
person or persons placed in the tomb. But there is more 
ambiguity as to the use of the latter term. Some of the 
tombs, as will appear shortly, were of the nature of family 
vaults, and were intended to be opened from time to time 
for the reception of fresh inhabitants. Such later inter- 
ments might fairly be spoken of as secondary. But there 
are also in the grave mounds other burials of quite 
a different character. Sometimes a Saxon or a Roman 
interment is found somewhere in the superincumbent 
mass of earth, though the original mound, and the burial 
or burials which it contains, may be of the bronze period. 
This might also be spoken of as a secondary interment, 
and, in fact, is so spoken of. It might perhaps be better, 

' British Barron's. Note on p. 22. 


however, to confine this word to burials of the Ivind men- 
tioned above, i.e.^ burials of the same class but of later 
date, and to speak of the other variety as alien interments, 
i.e.^ interments forming no part of the scheme of the 
original constructors of the mound and of a different 

Varieties of Barrows. 

We may now proceed to consider the various kinds of 
barrows met with in this country, and it will much simplify 
the matter if we compare the two leading varieties, long 
and round barrows, to two well-known methods of inter- 
ment in the present day, the family vault and the single 
grave. The simile is not absolutely unassailable, but is 
sufficiently close, for the long barrow was a family or 
tribal burying-place, whilst the round barrow was, at least 
at times, heaped up over the remains of one person and 
not intended to be reopened for the introduction of further 
burials. In relation to this comparison it must also be 
remembered that our modern graves, though as a rule 
made for one interment, are sometimes used for two or 
even more. The long barrow is the earlier form, as it 
is the larger, and must, therefore, be first considered. 
It is the characteristic place of burial of the people of the 
later stone period, and the first form of artificial burial- 
place with w^hich we are acquainted. But it must be 
freely admitted that so far we know nothing of the burial 
customs of the people of the earlier Stone Age, if, indeed, 
they had any. 

Long Barrows. — The long barrow, whose special charac- 
teristics will shortly be detailed, was of two kinds, 
chambered and unchambered, and the former, as the 
more interesting of the two, may first be dealt with. If 
the first place of burial as well as the first place of habita- 


tion was a cave, it would not be surprising if man, when 
he emerged from his gloomy, natural shelters, made his 
first artificial homes and his first tombs on the model with 
which he was acquainted. As to the latter, at any rate 
this may be said, that the chambered tumulus, perhaps the 
earliest sepulchral monument existent, is an artificial cave 
or grotto, composed of great stones arranged so as to form 
a kind of cell. Such a cell may have been embedded in 
the earth, and covered up with no intention that it should 
ever again be disturbed, or it may have been placed on 
the surface of the earth and covered with a mound, with 
the same intention. A cell of this kind, which its builders 
closed up, as they thought, once and for ever, is properly 
called a cist, and that term should be reserved for such 
forms of interment. But at other times the intention was 
that the cell should be opened up from time to time for the 
introduction of further burials, and to this class belong 
the true chambered long barrows. In its simplest form the 
cell in such a barrow consists of three or more great stones 
reared up on end, and surmounted by another large flat 
stone, the " cap-stone," over all being placed a mound of 
earth. This cell or hut might be closed temporarily or per- 
manently after the remains of the dead had been introduced 
into its interior by a further slab of stone forming a kind 
of door. Such a place of burial would form a unilocular 
tomb, though the loculus might have been intended for 
the reception of more than one body. But it is obvious 
that by making a kind of gallery of large stones, with 
transepts or chambers opening out of it, a multilocular 
burial-place, capable of accommodating a greater number 
of burials, perhaps of serving as mortuary chapels for a 
number of families, would result. An example of this 
may be studied in the plan of the barrow at Uley, in 
Gloucestershire (Fig. 55"), and Stoney Littleton, Somerset 
(Fig. 55 ^). At Uley there were four chambers opening 


off the central avenue, the termination of which might be 
described as a fifth. The avenue itself is entered by a kind 
of low doorway (see Figs. 56 and 57), closed no doubt 
originally by a slab of stone and with rough walls, curveci 
outwards on either side of it. There may have been only 
a single pair of transepts, as was the case at Weylands 
Smithy, or there may have been six, in three pairs, as at 
Stoney Littleton. The horned cairns of Caithness seem 
to belong to the class of barrow now under consideration. 


I. Stoney Littleton, Somerset. 2. Uley, Gloucestershire. 3. Littleton Drew, \\'ilts 

A second variety of chambered barrow is that in which 
there is no central gallery, but the chambers are all 
approached separately from the exterior of the tumulus as 
in the case, for example, of the Rodmarton tumulus. In 
a third form, perhaps not strictly a chambered barrow 
in the restricted sense in which this word has been defined 
above, the tumulus contains a series of cists, perhaps 
never intended to be entered when once closed, but if to 
be entered, then only approachable through the roof, so 


to speak, that is, by removal of the top stone. Four cists 
of this kind were found in the barrow at Littleton Drew 
(Fig. 55^), and others have been discovered in Wilts and 
Gloucestershire. A somewhat similar arrangement seems 
to have obtained in Arran, where the cairns have recently 
been most carefully examined and described by my friend 
Dr. Brvce.^ 


Uley, Gloucestershire 

It would be impossible within the limits of space to 
deal with the cjuestion of interments outside this country, 
but attention may here be called to the fact that the 
French allees coitvertes- and the Hunnebedden of Holland-' 
closely resemble the true chambered barrows of this island. 
The second form of long barrow, the unchambered type, 
is, according to Canon Greenwell, a variety due to the 

^ Proc. Soc. Antiqs., Scotland, July, 1902, and June, 1903. 

- For a description of a typical example, see L'Aiithropolnfrie, \. 160. 

^ Franks, Proc. Soc. Ant, 1S72, p. 258, and L' Anlhropologie , ix. i 



difference in local circumstances and particularly to the 
supply of stone, and not of racial or chronological signi- 
ficance. The chambered barrows are met with chiefly 
in North Wilts and Gloucestershire, localities where large 
blocks of stone of a ^ 

kind suitable for the ^.- - .17:'". •":"" •• 

erection of such sepul- ■"•"^v." :- ''--'^-'''-'~~:5^^^^. 

chres abound. In South 
Wilts, in Dorset, in 
Yorkshire, and in 
Westmorland, the un- '• 
chambered variety is 
found in districts where .**?'"■ 
stone suitable for the 
construction of cham- 
bers is less easily to be 
met with. In the un- 
chambered class there 
are sometimes walls in 
the interior of the 
mound, but no cham- 
bers or recesses as 
there are in the class 
first considered. The 
bones or ashes are em- 
bedded in the constitu- 
ents of the mound itself 
and, remarkable to say, 
have sometimes been 
burnt m situ. In order 

to effect this the bodies or bones were arranged in a 
line, and the stones around them were built into a kind 
of flue, so that a draught might be created. For this 
purpose it was necessary that a vent should be constructed 
at the end opposite to that at which the fire was lit, and 

FIG. 57. 

West Kennett 


this has been identified in at least one case. Perhaps an 
example of each class may be briefly described before the 
general characteristics of long barrows are summed up. 
The chambered barrow at Uley (see Fig. 55) consists of 
a mound about 120 feet in length, 85 feet in its maximum 
breadth, and about 10 feet high. It was originally sur- 
rounded, like other long barrows, with a boundary wall, 
and its entrance, which is a low doorway, 2h feet in height 
above the natural surface of the ground, is at the east 
end. The capstone of the doorway is 3 feet in length 
and 4I inches in thickness. The gallery in the interior 
runs for a distance of 22 feet from east to west. It is 
5 feet high and 4^ wide. Its sides are formed of large 
slabs of stone set edgeways, the spaces between being 
filled with smaller stones. The roof is formed of large 
flat slabs. As already mentioned, there are two transepts 
on either side. As an example of the other class, the 
barrow at Scamridge (Greenwell, ccxxi.) may be cited. 
The mound here was 165 feet in length, 46 feet in breadth 
at the west end, and 54 at the east. In height it rose 
from 7 feet at the west to 9 feet at the east end. It con- 
tained a wall about 5 feet from the exterior on the north 
side, which may have run the entire length of the barrow, 
and with this exception and another to be mentioned in 
a moment was composed of oolitic rubble, clay, and earth. 
This further exception was along the central line of the 
barrow, where the mixture of stone and earth above 
alluded to gave way to a line of oolitic rubble, amongst 
which were deposited the remains of fourteen bodies, the 
component parts being scattered about in a confused 
manner. This disorder w^as not due to secondary dis- 
turbance of the barrow, but was the original manner in 
which the bones were laid down. At the eastern end 
of this line of bones there were evidences that a fire had 
been lit for purposes of incineration. It had been in- 



tended that its action should penetrate along- the whole 
line, hence the arrangement of the bones in the midst 
of loose rubble, which might act as a flue. As a matter 
of fact there was a regular gradation from much to little 
burnt bones. At the east the bones had disappeared and 
the oolite had been converted into lime, w^hilst at the west 
the bones were untouched by fire. This condition of 
affairs has been observed in other barrows of the same 
class. Canon Greenwell thinks that the manner of carry- 
ing out the burning' was in this wise:^ "The bodies 
sometimes in a complete state, at other times fragmentary 
and the bones disjointed, were laid at or above the level 
of the natural surface on a thick layer of clay, or, as in 
this case (i.e. a barrow at Westow, E.R., Yorks), on a 
pavement of flagstones ; upon them were placed, as here 
and at Rudstone, turfs or earth, and upon that again 
stone ; there do not appear, in all cases, to have been any 
intervening turfs, the stone itself lying immediately upon 
the bones. Wood was placed amongst, alongside, and 
underneath the stone, the evident remains of it, in the 
shape of charcoal, being found abundantly in some parts; 
and in others, where charcoal is w^anting, it is probable 
that the intense burning had consumed the wood too 
perfectly for any remains beyond a white ash to be left. 
Over and upon this covering deposit of stone was then 
thrown up the ordinary material of the barrow\" At 
some point, but where is not quite clear, the wood was 
fired with the intention that all the bones in the tumulus 
should be consumed, or at least, perhaps it should be 
put, purified by the influence of the flames. 

Where cremation has not taken place, the bodies are 
either buried in a contracted position, or the remains of 
many skeletons may be mixed more or less promiscuously 
together. In the Wilts barrows these remains are gener- 

^ P- 495- 


ally found in a stratimi of black carlh, whose blackness is 
not due to the influence of fire, below the great mass of 
earth, flint, etc., of which the bulk of the tumulus is com- 
posed. Partly in the same layer, and partly above it, 
have been found the remains of oxen and other animals, 
perhaps the relics of the funeral feast. In the floors of 
these barrows and scooped out in the surface-chalk, have 
in a number of instances been discovered pits from one 
to two feet in depth, and from tw^o to three feet in diameter. 
The object of these is very obscure, since they have never 
been found to contain human bones, but we may conclude 
that they were of some ceremonial importance. It will 
have already been noticed that the bones of the dead are 
often mixed up in a confused manner, and it may be added 
that parts of skeletons are not infrequently missing. This 
is not due to the barrow having been opened and the 
bones disarranged after the flesh had disappeared from 
them. It is a condition which is met with in obviously 
undisturbed mounds. Hence it is clear that the bones 
were deposited as we find them, that is, that the flesh had 
been removed from them before they were laid in the 
grave. On this fact has risen a suggestion that our pre- 
decessors in this land were, like many other savages, 
cannibals. Whether this be true or not, it is an un- 
necessary hypothesis, for the state of aft'airs can be quite 
w'ell accounted for by supposing that these barrow's w'ere 
ossuaries, erected from time to time over a number of 
bodies whose bones had been allowed to accumulate until 
a sufficient number, or a convenient time, seemed to 
warrant their final deposition. To the points already 
given the following general remarks upon long barrows 
may be added. Both kinds diff"er from the round variety 
in several ways, w'hich will shortly be considered, but of 
which one must here be mentioned, namely, that they 
occur in isolated positions and not in groups. 



As their name signifies, they are very much longer than 
they are broad ; they ahiiost always run east and west, and 
the east end, which is that where the interments most 
commonly are found, is broader and higher than the 
west. In the case of the unchambered barrows there is 
usually a ditch on either side of the mound, but not con- 
tinued round its ends. In the chambered variety this is 
quite frequently absent, and in its place is to be found a 
dwarf wall, sometimes interspersed with small ortholiths 
or standing stones (see Fig. 58). Moreover the interior of 
the chambered barrow may have dry walls intersecting it 
apart from those which form the cells for the reception 

FIG. 5S. 

of the bodies (see Fig. 55''). And in some case^(e.g. the 
Tinglestone, near Avening, Glos.) a monolith or menhir 
has been found on, or, as at Ablington, Glos., in the 
barrow itself. The skulls of the primary interments in 
these barrows are always dolichocephalic (see p. 304) or of 
the long variety. The accompanying gifts are few, and 
consist of flint implements and rough pottery. No trace 
of bronze has been found in any of them. In France and 
Scandinavia barrows of the same class have been found 
to contain objects of gold, and stone implements in 
abundance, thus forming a contrast to their English 
brethren. Alien interments, Anglo-Saxon, Roman and 
pre-Roman, have been found in the superincumbent 
masses of earth covering in the primary burials of the 


lonf;- barrow. There has been much controversy as to the 
orio-in of the chambered barrow. Was it derived from 
the primitive house, or did the beehive house grow out 
of the tomb? It is certainly suggestive to find that the 
Lapps of the extreme north of Scandinavia use a mound- 
hut closely resembling a tumulus. " Here," says Mr. 
A. Evans, "are the ring-stones actually employed in 
propping up the turf-covered mound of the dwelling, and 
there is the low entrance-gallery leading to the chamber 
within, which, in fact, is the living representative, and at 
the same time the remote progenitor, of the gallery of the 
chambered barrow." 

Round Barrows. — Barrows with a more or less circular 
base-plan, which occur, as a rule, in groups, are very much 
more numerous and widely distributed than the long 
variety. Even in Wilts, where there are, or have been, 
sixty long barrows, these, according to Thurnam, are 
only as one to thirty-five as compared with the round 
barrows, which amount to nearly 2,000 in number. 

Though all more or less circular, a number of varieties 
have been described and arranged into the following 
classes by Thurnam : — ^ 

Round Barrows {Bronae Period). 

i a. Simple bowl-barrows. 

1. Bowl-shaped barrows -^ h. Trenched bowl-barrows. 

( c. Composite bowl or oval barrows. 
j a. Simple bell. 

2. Bell-shaped barrows < h. Twin. 

{ c. Triple. 

a. Simple — with flat area. 

b. With one, two, or three small 
central tumuli. 

With one low mound nearly 
covering" the area. 

ArcJiceoldgin, xlii. i6S. 

Disc-shaped barrows 



The bell variety is distinguished from the bowl by 
having a ditch around it, and the disc from both by its 
resemblance to a circular shallow dish inverted. The 
*' Druid" barrow, of Stukeley, belongs to this category, 
and consists of one or more very small mounds with a 
circular bank surrounding them at some distance. The 
following general account relates to all these classes, for 
we have no evidence as to any reason for the varieties of 
shape, nor does it appear that they are of racial or chrono- 
logical value. 

Structure of the Barrow.— Commonly the primary inter- 
ment was made in a grave excavated in the ground, over 
which was heaped up a mound of earth gathered from the 


immediate neighbourhood. Here the interments might 
end, but it was not uncommon for others to be added, so 
that several layers or strata may be met with, some or all 
of them containing later burials. Fig. 59 gives a section 
of a tumulus examined by Warne and described in his 
Celtic Antiquities of Dorset. It is one of a group of six 
on Lord's Down, in the parish of Dewlish. It was eighty- 
two feet in diameter and fourteen feet in height. Here 
a cavity (/) had been cut in the chalk, to contain the 
primary interment in an urn. The cist was packed with 
flints and chalk- rubble, the latter extending for some 
distance beyond its limits. On the chalk rubble was 
a layer of earth (^), and above this a second layer of chalk- 


rubble {d) containing an interment. After the mound had 
reached this point a further cist was cut in it, in which an 
interment took place, a fresh layer of earth (c) being then 
added. Above this again was a further layer of chalk- 
rubble {b) and a final layer of earth («), and in both of 
these strata were interments. Thus there were three 
layers of chalk-rubble, and the same number of earth, 
alternating with one another, and each of them containing 
an interment. Around the barrow was sometimes a ditch, 
sometimes a ring of standing stones. This was possibly 
a "ghost-hedge," and like the rings of stone and trenches 
sometimes found inside the fabric of the barrow, is always 
interrupted at one or more points. In the floors of the 
wold barrows are sometimes found the same strange pits 
already mentioned in connection with the unchambered 
long barrows of the south-western part of the island. 
These pits are generally filled up with the ordinary con- 
stituents of the mound itself, but they may contain frag- 
ments of animal, or, but rarely, human bone, charcoal, 
potsherds, or burnt earth and stones. They are not 
usually in close contact with the bodies, and no satisfactory 
explanation of their purpose is as yet forthcoming. The 
remains of animal bones are found in numbers in the 
substance of many barrows, and may represent the relics 
of the funeral feast. Amongst the bones thus discovered 
have been those of the red-deer, goat, sheep, horse, pig, 
and different kinds of oxen. Bones of water-voles are 
very common in Derbyshire barrows and are found else- 
where, but these are the remains of animals which have 
burrowed into the mounds and made their hybernacula 
there. The human bones have often been found o-nawed 
by these animals, and the remains of one of them was 
found inside a human skull in a barrow. Perhaps the 
bones of the badger and the fox may have at times been 
introduced in the same manner. They are found, and so 


are those of the (probably wild) cat, hare, pigeon, and 
polecat. The dog has been found buried with his dead 
master, not merely in British mounds, but in various 
parts of the world. 

A remarkable feature of the round barrows is the finding 
of fragments of flint and of pottery strewn, evidently of 
set purpose, throughout the earth of which they are 
composed. It is impossible to doubt that some ceremonial 
significance attached to this deposition of shards, and 
perhaps the recollection of the pagan ceremony lingered 
in the custom alluded to in Hamlet of placing such objects 
in the graves of suicides, for the sacred observance of one 
religion may be transmuted in another into a ceremony 
of disgrace. 

Disposition of the Bodies. — The round barrows contain 
bodies which have been cremated and others which have 
been inhumed, nor is there any evidence to show that one 
or other method was the earlier. Indeed, there is abundant 
reason to believe that both methods were practised at the 
same time, and Canon Greenwell even cites one case 
in which a burial after cremation and a burial by inhuma- 
tion seem to have taken place simultaneously in the same 
mound. We may gather, then, that the condition of afl'airs 
was much as it is now, when the method of interment 
is determined by the wish of the relations, or by the direc- 
tions of the dead person. 

When the body was unburnt it was generally laid in 
the grave in a contracted, very rarely in an extended, 
position. There is sufficient evidence to show that the 
body was sometimes interred in its clothes, whether of 
skin, or of wool, or of coarse cloth. Where the body was 
burnt the ashes may have been laid upon the ground, or 
placed in a cinerary urn — the common method of disposal, 
or under an inverted urn. The primary interment may 


have been single or multiple. Fig. 60 shows the skeletons 
of a mother and child surrounded by a number of fossil 
echini. In a barrow at Goodmanham (Greenwell, Ixxxv.) 
the calcined bones of two infants, who may be presumed 
to have died at about the same time, are the sole occupants 
of a barrow, Greenwell, Bateman, Hoare, and Warne, 
all record cases in which husband and wife have been 
buried together.^ A man, a woman, and two children, 
presumably a family, have been found simultaneously 
interred.- Greenwell is inclined to believe that many of 
the cases of multiple interment, simultaneous in character, 
are cases where wives, children, servants, or all of these, 
have been immolated with the chief, or head of the family, 
a custom so common that it would be almost surprising 
if no evidence of it were met with in the past history of 
this country. 

Burnt or unburnt, the body, or what remained of it, was 
sometimes deposited in the barrow without any protec- 
tion from the earth which was to be heaped upon it. In 
other cases some form of protection was afforded, an urn 
being generally provided in cases of incineration. Some- 
times the head alone was shielded, either by two pieces 
of stone placed in a /^-shaped manner over it, or by 
being embedded in gravel before the rough stones of the 
tumulus were heaped up over the body. Sometimes a 
cist was excavated for the body, and this cist may have 
been lined with stones or with wood, and roofed. A 
hollowed trunk of a tree sometimes has been used as a 

1 " Two skeletons lay side by side, evidently those of a man and a 
woman — the bodies touched each other — the head of each leaned towards 
the other, so that the foreheads touched so intimately that the blade of 
a knife could not be pressed between them. The right arm of the man lay 
across his breast, that of the woman by her right side, over which his left 
arm was crossed, apparently to clasp the left hand of the woman, whose 
arm was bent in that direction across the body." — Warne, Celtic Tumult of 
Dorset. ^ Bateman^ Ten Years' Digging, 78. 


Dunstable Downs 

(By kind perDiission oj W. G. Siiiiih) 


coffin, or a similar receptacle has been formed from 
boards. In one case given by Greenwell the remains lay 
on a wooden platform, in a cavity formed in the clay and 
itself lined with planks, the idea apparently being to keep 
the body from the wet. A chamber of the beehive type 
has also been found in the centre of a barrow for the re- 
ception of the body. In certain cases no trace of human 
remains has been found in a barrow, though implements 
and perhaps pottery may have been brought to light. By 
some writers such mounds have been looked upon as 
cenotaphs, but as Greenwell rightly points out, the idea 
which gives rise to the erection of a cenotaph is one which 
belongs to an age more artificial than we can suppose that 
to have been which saw the construction of the round 
barrows. What is far more likely is that, owing to some 
peculiarity of the soil, the entire of the human remains 
have become decomposed, only the imperishable stone 
implements entombed with the body remaining. Alien 
interments may be met with in the case of round barrows 
as in that of their long predecessors. 

Accompanying Gifts. — The objects buried with the dead 
in the long barrows were, as we saw, very few in number ; 
in the round variety the condition is just the reverse. 
Implements of stone and bronze, the latter of early types, 
pottery, ornaments of gold, amber, and jet, with other 
objects, are found with the skeletons or ashes of the dead. 
The pottery will be dealt with separately in its own place, 
and no special description of the other objects need be 
given, since many of them have already been touched 
upon in previous chapters. A few further points may be 
mentioned here. Gold has not been found in any great 
abundance in English barrows. Hoare cites instances 
from six barrows in Wilts, and perhaps this is the largest 
number which could be claimed by any county. The 


whole number of finds is but small, and the character of 
the articles found is not imposing. Evidently there was 
no great introduction of this metal into the country during 
the period of the construction of the round barrows. 
Amber, jet and glass beads, and ornaments, have been 
found, but not with any great frequency. The necklace 
drawn in Fig. 54 is an example of work in the second 
of these materials. Pottery, implements of stone and of 
bronze, form the most numerous classes, and the dis- 
coveries in these directions have afforded most valuable 
information to the students of prehistoric archaeology. 
Raddle, a substance of which there is no doubt that 
primitive man was very fond, has been found, as in a 
barrow opened by Bateman,^ where there was discovered 
a flat piece of sandstone rubbed hollow on one side, and 
a round piece of raddle or red war-paint, which, from its 
abraded surface, must have been in much request, pro- 
bably for colouring the skin of its former owner. Where 
this substance has been found in tumuli it seems to have 
been always associated with well-made flint implements. 

Flint and steel for the making of fire have also been 
found in tumuli, the latter being represented by a nodule 
of pyrites, and both it and its fellow flint showing signs 
of use. Similar objects have been found in Saxon graves 
on the Continent."^ They have also been buried with the 
dead by Lapps. 

Pottery. — The important subject of pottery can only be 
touched upon here, but some mention must be made of 
the characteristic features of this work and the varieties 
of vessels met with in the barrows of the Neolithic and 
bronze periods. So far no definite evidence is forth- 
coming that pottery was made during the Palceolithic 

^ Ten Years' Digging, i68. 

* De Baye, The Industrial Arts of the Anglo-Saxons, p. 96. 


period, in fact, Mortillet lays down the law that in France 
and in England there are no remains of pottery belonging 
to that time, if indeed pottery was then manufactured. 
During the bronze and Neolithic periods, however, plenty 
was made, and there is no great difference between that 
belonging to the earlier and later dates. In the bronze 
period the articles were for the most part smaller, with 
thinner walls and finer paste. The ornamentation, though 
on the same scheme and consisting of geometric figures, 
was lighter, and the patterns were more artistic. There 
are more cups, dishes, and plates, but the differences are 
of a minor character, and, with the note just given, the 
same description will suffice for the work of both periods. 

The pottery was always made by hand, that is to say, 
without a wheel, that useful invention having come in 
with the late Celtic period. It was burnt, but in an open 
fire and not in a kiln. In most examples, and in all those 
of any considerable size, small stones have been mixed 
with the clay of which the vessel was compounded. It 
was never glazed with a true glaze, though many drink- 
ing cups have a kind of polish upon them. It is clear 
that this was intentionally produced, and the method 
adopted was probably that of rubbing the vessel, when 
the clay of which it was composed had partly dried, with 
a piece of hard stone or perhaps with a bone implement. 
There are never any signs that colour was applied as a 

It was almost always ornamented, and the patterns on 
it were of a geometrical, never of a biomorphic, character. 
Moreover, the patterns were almost always sunk into the 
clay, the use of raised bands being rare. A common 
method of effecting the ornamentation was to impress a 
twisted thong upon the moist clay either in continuous 
bands as in Fig. 61, or in shorter lengths as in Fig. 63, 
where a kind of herring-bone pattern has been thus 


produced. In other cases ornamentation has been produced 
by impression of the point of the finger or by making 
geometrical figures in lines or rows of dots with the point 
of some sharp instrument. Sometimes, though rarely, 
the vessels are provided with feet ; covers also are very 
rare. Ears or lugs sometimes occur, and these may be 
either pierced or unpierced ; the latter, according to 
Greenwell, belonging to a later date. There may be four 
pierced or four unpierced ears ; in the vessel represented 
in Fig. 62 there are eleven vertical piercings, opening 
both above and below, within the cavity. A cup with a 
single handle, capable of admitting one finger only, has 
been discovered in a barrow. 

The quality of the pottery varies a good deal, and wide 
differences may be observed between the examples in the 
same interment. "It is no uncommon occurrence," says 
Greenwell, "to find in the same barrow, and under cir- 
cumstances which show that the several vessels are the 
product of the same period, some which evidence con- 
siderable skill, whilst others might have been made by 
the veriest tyro in the trade." 

Four classes of vessels have been met with in connection 
with interments. With the exception of the cinerary urns, 
as to the purpose of which there can be no doubt, since 
the burnt remains of the dead are found in them, the 
names which have been given to these objects are of a 
more or less fanciful character. Still, as they serve a 
purpose in dividing the specimens into definite classes, 
they may continue to be used until some better nomen- 
clature is accepted. 

(i.) The most common objects are those known as Food 
Vessels, which have been found in association with both 
burnt and unburnt bodies. They are from three to eight 
inches in height, and vary considerably in shape. Com- 
monly they are more or less conical below, with a parallel- 



sided upper portion or even a contracted mouth. Knobs 
or ears are often found around the shoulder of the vase, 
and they have been ornamented freely in the manner 
already described. 

(ii.) Drinking Cups are met with in considerable num- 
bers, but not so commonly as the first-named variety. 
Commonly they fall into one or other of two classes, 
though exceptional forms are met with. The first type 
narrows from the mouth to a point generally somewhat 
above the middle. From this the vessel swells out, again 
to taper at the base. The second type, the lines of which 
are less flowing and graceful, is rounder at its lower por- 
tion than the first, and from the upper part of this segment 
the sides expand, without any curvature until they reach 
the mouth. 

Durrington (height, 13J inches) 

Woodyates (height, 18J inches) 

(iii.) Cinerary Urns^ (Figs. 6i and 62) are the largest 
examples of pottery met, ranging in height from five 

1 A paper by Dr. Colley March on Types of Sepulchral Urns, Trans. 
Lane. Ches. Antiq. Soc, 1887, should be consulted on this subject. 


inches to three feet. The breadth at the widest portion 
is generally equal to the height. In shape they generally 
form two truncated cones, the larger forming the basal 
portion, the smaller the upper. Where the cones meet 
the upper forms an overhanging ring, a very characteristic 
feature of all shapes of cinerary urns. The ornamentation 
is often confined to the upper cone, but may extend below 
it. A less common form of urn, met with in Dorsetshire, 
is almost tub-shaped. Fig. 62 represents a large urn i8i 
inches in height and 15^ inches in diameter at the top. It 
was found in a barrow at Woodyates, and has the over- 
hanging rim. The upper part is ornamented with rows of 
diagonal, impressed-cord lines enclosed within vertical 

lines of the same, so as 
to form a herring-bone 
pattern. Round the 
shoulder is a line of 
thumbnail-shaped cord 
impressions. It is in 
the Devizes Museum. 

(iv.) Incense Cups are 
always found with burnt 
bones, and may per- 
haps have been cinerary 
urns for the remains of 
infants. They often ex- 
hibit the feature, rare in 
other kinds of pottery, of 
perforations. They are 
generally of finer clay 
than the other varieties, 
and of small size. Some- 
times they have a kind of 
grape pattern upon them 
, ,, „ 'Fig. 64). Fig. 6-; is an 

FIG. 64. "incense ' CUP, GRATE PATTERN . . 

Normanton, Wilts (height 23 inches). IttCenSe CUp of thlck 

FIG. 63. PART OF "incense" CUP. 
Winterbourne Stoke (height ij inches) 


coarse clay with two perforations, and marked with cord 

It appears that all the varieties described above were 
made for sepulchral purposes, for the ordinary domestic 
pottery, as far as w^e know it, was dark-coloured, hard- 
baked, and perfectly plain and without ornament. 


(With regard to this list, it has not always been found possible 
to determine from the Ordnance Map whether a given mound 
is a long or a round barrow. All those stated to be long may 
be taken to belong to that class. The remainder are almost 
entirely round barrows, but it is possible that amongst them 
may also be included some examples of the other class. More- 
over, since the nature of a mound can only be told by excavation, 
since Romans and Saxons threw up barrows very like to those 
of the bronze and Early Iron period, and since rubbish heaps, 
natural hillocks, and foundations of windmills have sometimes 
been taken for barrows, it cannot be guaranteed that all the 
objects contained in this list are sepulchral in their nature ; but 
this at least may be said, that all of them have been claimed 
as barrows, and many, if not most, of them have been proved 
to be such. No attempt has been made to include in the list 
all the round barrows of the country, but it is hoped that 
the facts given may afford some idea of the distribution of 
sepulchral mounds of the pre-Roman period throughout England. 
Some references, here as elsewhere, have been given to the 
literature of the subject. The reader is asked also to refer to 
the general statement as to these lists made in the Preface.) 

Bedfordshire — 

Leighton Buzzard. 

Wing, near Leighton Buzzard. 

Berkshire — 

Bearwood. In a wood near Wokingham. 
Blewbury, li S. of. Seven barrows. 2 S. of, is another 
near a square camp. 


Berkshire {contd.) — 

*Brimpton, several large circular barrows.^ 

King-ston. Lisle Park, N. of. 
*Lambourn,^ \\ E. of. Two. \\ S.W. of. One. (In 
one a half nodule of pyrites found.) 
Letcomb Bassett.^ 
Newbury, i^ S.W. of. Four. 

Upper Lambourn, \\ N.E. of. Twenty. Contents in 
British Museum. 


"Adwell Cop.," % S.E. of Adwell. 

Great Kimble, near the church (Ro.-Brit. pottery, Proc. 

Soc. Atif., xii. 340). 
Horsenden, i^ S.E. of. Two. 
Icknield Street, along" the line of. The most important 

group is at Eddlesborough. 
" Thornborough Mounds," 2 E. of Buckingham. Two. 
West Wycombe, 2\ N.W. of. Two. 
*White Leaf Hill, near. 

Cambridgeshire — 

"Chronicle Hills," f N.E. of Thriplow. Three large 

barrows {Gent. Mag-. Lib. Arch., i. 88). 
" Copley Hill," f E. of the Gogmagog Hills. 
Five Hill Field, near Royston {Archceol., xxxii. 357). 
" Moulton Hills," near Bourn. 
Muttilow Hill (burnt bones, Jewitt, 35). 
Newmarket (Bronze). 
" Wormwood Hill," \ S. of Vandlebury. 

Cheshire — 

Alderley Park. Two. 


Cotebrook, i N. of. 

Goostrey, i E. of. Three. 

Eddesbury Hill, near. " Glead Hill Cob," " Castle Cob," 

and " The Seven Lows." 
Withington Hall, i^W. of. Three. 

■^ ArchcBoIogin , lii. i. 


Cornwall — 

Angrowse Mullion. (Bronze dagg-er, urn, and piece of 

Ballowal, St. Just. Karn Gluze. 
Boscregan. Karn Leskys and Karn Creis. (Pottery 

and burnt bones, Borlase.) 

Braddock Down, near Bodmin Road Station. 
Castle Down, near St. Columb Major. 
Harlyn Bay. Late Celtic interments in cists. 
Pennance, near St. Ives. 
Resparvel Down. 

Rillaton. (Contained a g-old cup.) 
Samson Island (Scilly). (Opened 1862.) 
Tregaseale, St. Just. 
Treloe Down. 
Trevalgue. (Perforated axe-hammer. ArchcroL, xliv. 

(For further notices of Cornish barrows, see Borlase, 
Archceologid, xlix. 181, and Ncenia Cornubise.) 

Cumberland — 


*Peelohill, near Bewcastle. "Cairn o' the Mount." 

Arthuret (perhaps eskers). 

Aspatria, Beacon Hill. 
*Aughertree Fell. 

Barnscar. Many cairns (unexamined). 

Bewcastle, " Murchie's Cairn." 

Binsey, summit of. 


Blindcrake, between this place and Redmain, "The Grey 
Barrow " at Isell. 

*Broadfield, Inglewood Forest, near Highhead Castle. 

Castle Carrock, near Brampton. {British Barrows^ 

379- )_ 
Dunmail Raise. 


Cl'MKKRLAXD (coilfd. ) — 


Egremont Common. 

Fishers Cross. 

Friars Moor. 

Geltsdale, Coldfell. 

Gillalees Beacon. 

Graysonlands, Glassonby. (Bronze Ag-e interments in 

tumulus with circle. British Barrozvs, 7. Proc. Soc. 

Anf., ii. xviii. 321.) 
Hallbank Gate. 

Hartside, Benty Hill. " Old Anthony's Chair." 
Keswick, Latrig-. 

Kirkoswald, Parks Tumulus. (Bronze.) 
Kirksanton, near Millom. 
Knock's Cross, Port Carlisle. 
*Newton Regny. 

Derbyshire — 

Bakewell, i E. of. On Calton Pastures. Five tumuli. 

Blake Low. Longstone Edge. 

Brassington, near. " Minning Low." (Jewitt, p. 54.) 

Brushfield Hough, in Monsal Dale. 

Bunkers Hill, near Arbor Low. 

Elton Moor. (Pyrites.) 

Eyam Moor. Six tumuli. 

Flax Dale. (Internal circles of stones surrounding urn 

with burnt bones.) 
Grinlow, near Buxton. {Proc. Soc. A///., ii. xv. 419.) 
Gunton, near Buxton, (id. ib.) 

Hartington, near, " Garden Low." (Bronze dagger.) 
Hitter Hill. (Jewitt, 16.) 
Hollinsclough, if N.E. of. 

Melbourne, near. " Knowle Hills." 
Middleton-by-Youlgrave. " Borther Low." (Bronze 

Parcelly Hay, near Arbor Low. 


Derbyshire {contd.) — 

Parvvich Moor. (Bronze dagger and celt.) 

Pilsbury, near Hartington. "Castle Hill Barrows," and 

" Wolf's Cote Barrows." 
Stanton Moor. (Covered vase, Arc/icroL, viii. 62.) 
Stoney Middleton, i^ S. of. Three tumuli. 
Stoop High Edge, 3^- S.S.E. of Buxton. {Proc. Soc. A/iL, 

ii. xvi. 261.) 
Thirkellow Frith, 3 S.S.W. of do. {/d., xv. 419, and 

xvi. 261.) 
Tissington. (Jet ring. Jewitt, 176.) 
(For full list of lows in Derbyshire, see Bateman, Te7i 

Years' Digging. Jewitt, Grave Mounds, may also be 


Devonshire — 

(For full lists in this county see the Reports of the Barrow 

Commission pub. by Devon. Assoc, for Advt. of Sci. in 

their Transactions.) 
Black Down, Symondsborough. 
Broadbury, between Okehampton and Holsvvorthy. 
Cosdon Beacon, Dartmoor. 

Farway, many barrows. [stones. 

Hookner Tor. Several cairns, one with ring of upright 
Sidmouth, near. Broad Down. 
Stanborough Camp. (Opened 1799.) 
Western Beacon. 
(See Page, Exploration of Dartmoor.) 


(This county contains a very large number of barrows. 
Only a few of the most important sites have been 
included in this list.) 
Long. — Bere Regis. 

Eastbury, near. 

Gussage, near. Long barrows. 
Litton Cheney, i E. of. 
Tarrant Hinton. 
*Wor Barrow. (Pitt-Rivers, Excavations, iv.) 


Dorsetshire icoiihL) — 


Bincombe Barrows. Many tumuli, one, opened 1784, con- 
tained bronze dagi^er. 

Bradford Down. 
*Bridehead, near. ('* For sight of barrows not to be 
equalled in this world." — Stukeley. ) 

Busbury Rings, within the area of the camp. 

Came Down. (Stones with concentric circle markings 
covered two burials after cremation.) 
*Chalbury, near. " Rimbury. " (An urn-field, not barrows, 
the necropolis, perhaps, of the adjacent town of Chal- 
bury. Urns, etc., in the Dorchester Museum.) 

Deverel Barrow, near Dewlish. 

East Chaldon, near. "The Five Marys." 

Eggardon Hill. 

Fontmel Down. 

Grimstone, | N. of. 

Handley, near. Many tumuli. (Some examined by Pitt- 
Rivers, Excavations, ii. Bronze.) 

Litton Cheney. 

Longbredy. Disc barrows. 

Long Bury Barrow, near Gillingham. {Said to be 

Milborne Stileham. 


Puddletown Heath. Many tumuli. 
*Stowborough. " King Barrow." (Opened 1767. Tree 
coffin, remains of body wrapped in deerskin.) 

Tarrant Hinton, near. 

Tollard Royal, near. Woodcuts. 

Winterborne Kingston. 

Winterborne Steepleton. (Pierced greenstone axe.) 

Woodyates. Disc barrows. 

Woolsbarrow, Bloxworth Heath. 

Worgret, \ N.W. of. 

(See Warne's Celtic Tumuli of Dorset, also his map 
and that of Pitt-Rivers. Also ArcJiceologia, xxx. 327.) 


Durham — 

Copt Hill, Houghton-le-Spring. (Cremated burial of 
Stone Age, with alien Bronze Age interment.) 

Bradley, near Ryton. (Contracted body in cist.) 
Eg'g'leston in Teesdale. (Fosse and circle of stones, 

"The Standing Stones.) 
Hetton. "The Fairies' Cradle." (Cairn of stones con- 
taining urn.) 
Ryton, to N. of Churchyard. 
Sacriston, near Durham. (Unburnt body in cist with 

Sherburn Grange. (Cist with contracted body.) 
Silksworth, Steeple Hill. (Unburnt body and urn with 

burnt bones of child.) 
Sunderland, near. Hambleton Hill. (Barrows with 

urns containing burnt bones.) 
Sunderland, near. Tunstall Hill. (Cist with unburnt body.) 
Treindon Grange. (Urn with burnt bones.) 
Wardon Law, below it is a small barrow. 
Westow. (Cist with contracted body and flint knife.) 
Essex — 

Aldham, near Colchester. Near the Church House. 
Askesden, near Saffron Walden. In Plesh Wood. 
Chadwell, near Romford. 
Colchester. (Late Celtic urn-field. Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. 

XX. 211.)^ 
Hockley, near Rochford. " Plumboro' Mount." 
Lawford, near Mannington. Near the Church. (Opened 

middle of last century, contained black pottery.) 
Maldon, near Beeleigh Abbey. 
Messing, near Colchester. In Podswood. 

Northey Island, on the Marshes. 

Rowhedge, or East Douyland. Near the old Church. 
Shoebury. (Late Celtic urn-field, not tumuli, Proc. Soc. 

Ani. ii. xvi. 259.)^ 
Sturmere, near Sudbury. Two tumuli. 
Theydon Bois, near Epping. Three tumuli. 
^ I have thought it well to uiclude the late Celtic burial-places in this list. 


Glouc estershire — 


Ablingfton. (Opened 1854.) 

Avening-, near. With menhir on it "The Tinglestone." 

Avening" Barrow. 
*Belas Knapp, above Winchcombe. (Contained thirty- 
eight skeletons, see Mrs. Dent's History of Winchconibe. 
Unfortunately almost ruined by boys since opened.) 

Bisley, 2 N. of. Two barrows at the village of Camp. 

Bisley, 2 E. of. Edgworth Barrow, 

Bisley, i E. of. "The Giant's Stone Barrow." (Almost 
entirely removed.) 

Bisley, N. of. Througham Barrow. (Chambers used 
as pigstye.) 

Bourton-on-the-Water, near. Cold Aston. 

Boxwell. Leighterton Barrow. (Opened 1700, burnt 
and unburnt interments.) 
*Brimpsfield, Buckholt Wood. "West Tump." (Con- 
tained twenty skeletons.) 

Cheltenham, 3 S. of. On Shurdington Hill. " Crippett's 
Barrow." {Archceologia xlii. 201.) 

Cirencester, 5 N.W. of. Duntisbourne Barrow. (Central 
part gone, ends resemble and have been taken for 
round barrows.) 

Cirencester, in "Quern's Field," close to amphitheatre. 
(See Buckman's Coriniiim.') 

Duntisbourne Abbots. "Hoarstone tumulus." (Com- 
posed of loose quarry stones. Contained eight or nine 

Farmington, within the entrenchments of Norbury 

Lower Swell. In " Cow Common Field." (Opened in 
1867, skeletons, flints, and pottery. British Barrows^ 
445, and Rolleston, Collected Works, i. 353. 

Minchinhampton Common. "Whitfield Tump." Re- 
mains of barrow. 

Nailsworth, i^ S. of. Lechmore Barrow, nearly de- 

Nailsworth, 2 N.W. of. Bown Hill Barrow. (Opened 
1863, skeletons, etc, Proc, Cots, Field Club, iii. 109, 
V. 279.) 


Gloucestershire {contd. ) — 

Nympsfield. (Opened 1862, skeletons, flints, pottery. 
Jl. Anthrop. Soc, s. i., iii. 66.) 

North Leach, 2 S. of. At Crickley Barrow. Two barrows. 

North Leach, 4N.W. of. Haselton Barrow. A second 
close to it. 

North Leach, 2 S.E. of Lodge Park. 
*Notgrove, i N.W. of. In the " Poor's Lots." (Opened 
by Witts, see his book tit infra.) 

Prinknash Park, In Pope's Wood. " Idol's Barrow." 

Randwick, 2 N.W. of Stroud. 

Rodmarton. " Windmill Tump." (Opened 1863, skele- 
tons, flints, pottery. ArchceoL, ix. 367.) 

Selsley Hill. "The Toots." 

Stow-on-the-Wold, 3 miles from, in Eyford parish. 
{Brit. Bar., 514.) 
*Uley, near the camp. '* Hetty Pagler's Tump." (Con- 
tained nearly 30 skeletons and an alien (Rom.) inter- 
ment. ArchcEol., xlii. 201. This tumulus can be 
entered and examined, but the key of the enclosure 
must first be obtained.) 

Upper Swell. (Skeletons, flints, pottery. Brit. Bar., c^2\.) 

Willersey, in the camp. (Nature rather doubtful.) 

Withington, i S. of. 

Witts {ArchcBolog-ical Handbook of Gloucestershire, a book 
which, with its accompanying map, will be found in- 
dispensable to any person working at the early history 
of the county) enumerates 126 of these. The follow- 
ing are among the most important. 

Avening Copse. "The Oven." (Burnt bones and flints.) 

Bisley. "Money Tump." Two others between this and 
Lypiatt Park. 

Cheltenham, 4 S. of. Near the "Air Balloon" public- 
house. Three barrows. 

Cheltenham, 2 S. of. Dry Heath Field. 

Dowdeswell, i S. of. Foxcote. 

Dursley, 2| S.E. of. Symonds Hall Farm. Two. 
Another on Symonds Hall Hill, 

Lower Swell. "Cow Common." Eight barrows. {Brit. 
Bar., 445.) 



Gloucestershire (conM.) — 

Lcckhampton Mill, near camp. 

Lower Swell, 2 W. of. Picked Morden. 

Nailsworth, 1 S.E. of. 

Thornbury, ij S. of. Near the " Ship" Inn. Two. 

Tormarton, i S.E. of. Three. 

Turkdean, i S.E. of. Three at Leygore Farm. 

Snowshill. (Bronze. Arc/iceo/., Hi. i.) 

Hampshire — 

Long. — Barton Stacey, \\ S. of. Two. 
Clanfield, i E. of. On Clanfield Down. 
Winchester, on St. Giles Hill. 

Round. — Andover, Road from Winchester to, 6^ N.W. of 

Winchester. One on either side of the road. 
*Baughurst Common. Several. 
Beau worth, i S. of. 
Bournemouth. Talbot Wood. 
Brightstone Down, I. of Wight. 
Broughton. (Urn with burnt bones.) 
*Burg-hclere, i;^ S. of. "The Seven Barrows." (Burnt 

bones, flints, pottery, one bronze pin. Proc. Soc. A?U,, 

ii. X. 18.) 
Cheriton, | E. of. Two. 
Gorley Common, li S.E. of. "Black barrow." Oval 

Itchenstoke Down. Several. One i W. of Abbotstone, 

and one in Abbotstone Wood. 
Mitcheldever. One in Cranbourne Wood and two on 

Down. 2 W. of Mitcheldever Tunnels. 
New Forest. One near Stony Cross, another in Berry 

Lodge Walk. 
Petersfield, ^ E. of. On Heath Common. Nine. 
Petersfield, Butser Hill. Several. 
Preshaw, i| N. of Preshaw House. 
Sydmonton, f S. of. 

Tidworth, S. " The Seven Barrows." There are really 

nine or ten. 
Winchester, i| S.W. of. On Compton Down. 
Winchester, 2 S.E. of. 
Woolmer, several. 



Herefordshire — 

Bucton Corn Mill, W. of. 
King's Pyon (?). 
Leintwardine, A VV. of. Two. 

Hertfordshire — 
Great Amwell. 
Hitchin. (Opened 1806 and 
Kent — 

Long. — Chilham. "Julaber's Grave." 
*Aylesford. British urn-field, 
not tumuli. {Proc.Soc.Ant.^ 
ii. xiii. 18.) 
Bourne Park. 

Dover, near. (Burnt bones 
and pottery. ArchceoL, 

xlv. 53-) 
Ewell. In LousyberryWood. 

Folkestone. Sugar Loaf Hill. 
Greenwich Park. 

St. Weonard's. 

Walford, nr. Brampton Bryan. 

Whitchurch, 1 S.W. of. Three. 


Ififin's Wood, near Canter- 
bury. {Aj'chcBoL, XXX. 57.) 
Isle of Harty. 
Shorne. {Proc. Sac. Ant., ii. 

xviii. 73.) 
Sibertswold. "Rupert's Butts." 
Stowting. " Mountain Hill." 
Thanet. "Hackendon Banks." 
Wye. "The Giant's Grave." 
Walmer. (Bones and flint 
chips. (/'wc.6"6»c..<4 «/., ii. v. 3 1 .) 

Lancashire — 

Bannishead Mire, near Coniston. Ring-mound.^ 

Bleaberry Haws, near Coniston. Ring-mound.^ 

Goathwaite Moor, near Coniston. Ring-mound.^ 

High Haume, Ireleth. "The Beacons." Sepulchral (?). 

Kirkby Ireleth. Ring-mound. 

Todmorden. Pottery, burnt bones, bronze implements, 

and jet. {Reliquary, ix. 276.) 
Torver Beck. Ring-mound. 
Torver Hare Crag. Ring-mound. 
Urswick, near. Birkrigg Common. 
Weeton Lane Head, near Birkham. 

^ i.e. a low bank of earth or stones forming a small circle. Probably 
sepulchral. See Archceol., iii, 415. 


(Early Iron Ag-e.) 

Dowsby, ^ N. of. 
Fordington, | S. of Ulceby. 
Revesby, N.E. of. Two. 
Scunthorpe, near. 
"Castle Hill." 

Leicestershire — 

Hallaton, h W. of. '' Castle Hill 
Kibworth Beauchamp, N. of. 
Ratcliffe-on-the-Wreak, ^ S. of. Shapley Hill. 
Lincolnshire — 
Ash Hill, ^ S. of Swinhope. 
Broughton. (Flint in urn of 

burnt bones.) 
Bully Hill, I S.E. of Tathwell. 
Burg-h-le-Marsh, [Six. 

Cleatham, A N.W. of. 

Middlesex. — Hampstead. " Boadicea's Grave." 
early bronze. Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xv. 240.) 

Monmouthshire. — Risca, i N. of. 

Norfolk — 


Anmer. Four. [Several. 

Aylsham (Stow Heath). 

Beechamwell. " Hangour 

Bergh Apton. Five. [Hill." 


Broome. Remains of several. 

Buckenham Tofts. 


Carlton Forehoe. Four. 

CockleyCley. Remains of one. 




Eaton. Two and sites of two. 

Eccles. "Gallows Hill," "Tut 
Hill," "Elder Hill," and 
"Seven Hills" (the last 
nine in number). 


Felmingham. Burial appar- 
ently Saxon. 


Frettenham. "Court Hill." 

N. of 


Great Bircham. Four. 

Harpley. Two. 


Houghton. Remains of one. 

Letheringsett. "Candlestick 

Little Cressingham. 


Massingham. One and re- 
mains of another. 

Merton. Four. 

Middleton. " Middleton 

Morton. Several. [Mount." 

Necton. " Mona Hill." 

New Buckenham. Two. 

North Pickenham. Three. 

Northwold. One, said to be 

Norwich. Site of one. 

Old Hunstanton. 


Roughton. " Rowhow Hill," 
"Two Hills," "Hare's 
Hill," and two others. 



Norfolk {contd.) — 

Salthouse. " Gallow Hill," 
"Three Halfpenny Hill," 
"Three Farthing- Hill," 
and fifteen others. 
Santon. "Blood Hill." 
Sheringham. " Flowe's Hill." 
Snarehill (extra-parochial to 
Swannington. [Thetford). 
Terrington. "Giant's Grave." 
Thetford. " Gallows Hill." 

Thompson. Three. 
Thurlton. One and sites of 

three others. 
Tuttington. Several. 
Weeting. ' ' Pepper Hill " and 

five others. 
Weybourr>e. Two. 

Northamptonshire — 
Grafton Regis. 

Kings Sutton. "The Lows." 
Longman's Hill, in Pitsford Parish. 
Northampton, meadows near. 
Northampton, " Danesbury Camp." (British Cemetery, 

not tumuli, of perhaps first century B.C.) 
Woodford, near Thrapston. 

Northumberland — 

Alwinton. {Brit. Bar. 422.) 

Ashington. (Cists with urns.) 

Bamborough Castle, near. {Brit. Bar., 413.) 

Broomlee Lough, ^ S. of. 

Broom Ridge. 

Carham. (Unburnt body with bronze dagger.) 

Chatton, near. {Brit. Bar., 412.) 

Chesterhope Common, if W. of Sweethope Loughs. 
(Gold beads. Brit. Bar., 436.) 

Cheswick. (Unburnt body with bronze dagger.) 

Coldsmouth Hill, near Kirk Newton. 

Doddington. {Brit. Bar., 410.) 

Eglingham, 2 N.W. of. Thirteen. (One with circle of 
stones. Brit. Bar., 418.) 

Ford Common. (Flints and pottery. Stones with cup- 
markings. Brit. Bar., 403.) 

Haltwhi.stle, near. 


Northumberland (coji^d.)— 

Haltwhistle, i N. of. Eight. 


Ingram, ih W. of. 

Kirk Whelpington. (BnV. Bar., 433.) 

Nether Witton, h N.W. of. 

North Sunderland. (Bones of a girl and three drinking- 
cups. Trans. Berw. Nat. Club, iv. 428.) 

Otterburn, i N.W. of. 

Ovingham. {Brit. Bar., 437.) 

Plessy. (Many burnt bodies in urns.) 

Rothbury. Cartington Fell. (One with circle of stones. 
Brit. Bar., 428.) 

Seghill. (Quartzite celt in cist with infant body.) 

Stamfordham, near Black H addon. (Stones with cup- 

Warkworth. {ArchcEol., Hi. i.) 

Nottinghamshire — 

Blidworth, i E. of. | Oxton, i N. of. 



Lyneham. {Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xv. 404.) 

Ash Hall Barrow, near Ash Hall on the Akeman Street. 

Chadlington, i^ E. of. 

Henley Park, h N. of Henley-on-Thames. 

Mixbury, h W. of. 

Shutford, I S. of. 

Wytham. (Burnt bones, flints, bone fibula. Brit. Bar. ,2^2.) 

Shropshire — 

Beguildy, \ N.W. of. 
Corra, \ S. of. 
Hope, \ N. of. 
Little Wenlock, '\ N. of. 
Longmynd, "Robin Hood's 
Butts," and other tumuli. 

Ludlow Racecourse, " Robin 

Hood's Butts." 
Marton village, E. of. 
Frees, i| N.E. of. 
Wrekin, The. 


Somerset — 

Long. — Nempnet. " Fairy's Toot." (Chambered.) 
Orchardleigh. (Chambered.) 
*Stoney Littleton. (Chambered. Archceologia, xix. and 

Round. — Clevedon, near. Walton Park. Cyst (bronze). 
Dundry Hill. 

Huish Champflower. {Soju. and Dors. N. and Q.^ 1903, 303,) 
North Stoke Down in British Camp. Pottery, bronze, 

and gold ornaments. 
Priddy, on Mendip. " Priddy Nine Barrows." 
Priddy, on Mendip. Ashen Lane. Eight. 
Sigwell. Twin and Round Barrows. (Bronze. Rolleston, 

Sci. Papers., i. 440.) 
Small Down Camp. Three tumuli. Urns, burnt bones, 

and flints. i^Pr. A. and N. H. S. So?n., iii. ix. 183.) 
Wick Barrow, Stogursey. Late Neolithic. (7l/««, 1909, 24.) 

Staffordshire — 

Brundlow, near Sheen. {Pfoc. Sac. AnL, ii. xv. 428.) 
Earl's Sterndale, near. "Hitter HiU." (Opened 1862, 

skeletons and urns.) 
Elford, near. " Robin Hood's Butts." 
Harlington. Many tumuli on the hills near. 
Roylow, near Sheen. (Proc. Sac. A?it, ii. xv. 419.) 
Tissington, near. "Sharp Low." 
Tixall Heath. "The King's Low " and "The Queen's 

Uttoxeter High Wood. " Toot Hill." 
Wetton Long Low. Twin Barrow. (Jewitt, Grave 

Mounds, 36.) (? really a long barrow.) 

Suffolk — 

Belton. "Bell Hill." 
Brightwell. Several. 
Culford. " Hill of Health. 

Fornham St. Genevieve. 

Herringswell. Three. 



Icklingham. Five. 

Ligfham. " Seven Hills." 


Suffolk {co7itd.) — 
Kentford. Four. 
Knettishall. "Tut Hill," 

and one other, 
Lakenheath. "Maid's Cross 

Levington. Eight. 
Little Barton. Three. 
Orwell. "Seven Hills." 

Risby Heath. 

Santon Downham. Three. 

Warren Hill, near Milden- 
hall. (Eighteen deer-ant- 
lers over the body. Jl. 
Stiff. Inst, of Arch., iv., 

West Stow. "Jennet's Hill." 

Word well. "Traveller's 

Surrey — 

Addington, near. Thunderfield Common. Twenty-five. 
Coulsdon, near. Farthing Down. 

Elstead, near. 
Frensham Common. 

Sussex — 

Alciston, near. Many. 
Graff ham, ii S.W. of. 
*Hove, near Brighton. (Tree 
coffin, stone axe, bronze 
knife, amber cup. Suss. 
Arch. Coll., ix. 120.) 
Kingby Bottom. 

Pattenham Heath. 
Westcott, i^ W. of. 

Lewes, Downs near. Many. 

Rottingdean, i| N. of. 

Treyford, f S. of. "The 
Devil's Jumps." Five tu- 

West Burton, f S.W. of 

Warwickshire — 

Compton Verney, near. Tachbrook. Knightlow Cross. 

Coombe Abbey, ^ N. of. 

Hartshill, W. of. " Key Abbey Mound." 

Wolston. Near the Fosse Way. 

Westmorland — 

Long. — *Crosby Garrett, Raisett Pike. (Burnt bodies and 
alien interments. Brit. Bar., 510.) 

/?o?^«^.— Ashfell, Kirby Stephen. 

Askham. Cairn with ring of stones. {Br Bar., 400.) 

Brackenber Moor. 

Crosby Garrett. Cairns. {Br. Bar., 386.) 

Crosby Ravensworth. {lb., 396.) 



Westmorland {contd.) — 

Dufton Church. 

Gamelands, Orton. 

Great Asby Scar. {Br. Bar., 396.) 

Kirby Stephen. Six barrows, one contained tree -coffin 

with bronze bowl, perhaps Post -Roman. {Br. Bar., 

Ravenstonedale. {lb., 393.) 
Shap, Raftland Forest. 
Warcop. {Br. Bar., 385.) 

Wiltshire — 

Long. Unchamhered. 

Examined by Cunnington and Hoare, and described in 
Aticietit Wilis, and by Thurnam, Archceologia, xlii. 161. 

Arne Hill. 

Bishops Cannings. 

Boreham. "King's Barrow." 


Brixton Deverell. 



'* Druid's Head," near. 

Easton Hill. 



Fyfield, near Pewsey. 
" Giant's Grave." 

Heytesbury. "Bowls Bar- 


Knook. Two. 

Knowl Hill. 

Long. Chambered. 

East Kennett. 

Lanhill. " Hubba's Lowe." 

Littleton Drew. "Lup-burv." 

Milston. Two near Tid worth 

Normanton. [in Hants. 

Norton Bavant. 




Sittingbourne — Kingston. 


Stonehenge. Two. 

Tilshead. "White Barrow." 


Old Ditch. 









Winterbourne Stoke 

Ell Barrow. 

Luckington. "GiantsCaves." 
Monkton. "Millbarrow." 


Wiltshire (contd.) — 
Temple Farm. 
Walker Hill. " Old Adam," or " Adam's Grave." 

Ro 11)1(1. 

Very numerous. Hoare {Ancient Wilts) describes 465 as 

opened by himself. The following list contains some of 

the more important localities — 
Aldbourn. Sugar Hill Down. {ArchcroL, lii. i.) 
Allington, i N. of. "Kitchen Barrows." 
Alton Priors, N. of. 
Avebury, neighbourhood of. Many. 
Bishops Cannings Down. 

Brigmilstone. (Flint and pyrites found.) 
Cherhill Downs. 
Cholderton Lodge, near. 
Cliffe Pypard, near Uffcott. 
^'Collingbourne Duels. (Burnt body in hollowed tree- 
trunk with stag's-horn hammer.) 
Deverills. Many near these villages. 

Hinton Down. {Archceol., lii. i.) 
Little Durnford. (Covered vase found.) 
Manton. Near Marlborough. Bronze, amber disc with 

gold mount, bronze lancet in gold mount. {Reliquary^ 

Jan., 1907.) 
Rushmore, near. (Examined by Pitt-Rivers, vol. ii. of 

Memoirs. Bronze.) 
Stonehenge. About 300 in vicinity. 
Tan Hill. (Jet ornament. .Irc/ucot., xliii. 510.) 
Upton Lovell. (Bronze pin and perforated stone axe.) 
Warminster, Cop Head. (Fragments of stag's horn.) 
Wilsford. (Bronze celt.) 

Winterbourne Monkton. (Flint implements and jet.) 
(Full information as to this class of barrow in Wilts 

will be found in Thurnam's paper, ArchcEol.^ xliii. 2S5.) 


Worcestershire — 

Kidderminster Foreign. 

Spring Grove, between Kidderminster and Bewdley. 
•'The Devil's Spadeful." 

Yorkshire — 

The barrows in this county are very numerous, and many 
of them have been opened and described by Canon 
Greenwell. The figures in brackets after certain of the 
examples indicate the page in British Barrows at 
which the description occurs. Those marked thus f 
are dealt with in Archceologia, lii. i. 


Ebberston (484). 

Gillingr (550)- 
Kilburn (501), 
Kilham (553). 
Market Weighton (505). 
Over Sitton (509). 
Rudstone (497). 
Weston (490). 
Willerly (487). 


Acklam Wold. (Burnt and unburnt bodies. Food vessel 

with cover.) 
Ampleforth Moors. Many. 

Ayton Moor, Way Hag. (Cup-marked stones.) 
Bempton, Metlow Hill, t f N. of Danes' Dyke. (Flints.) 
Binnington (179). Flints and pottery. 
Bishop's Burton. Several. (Flints and pottery.) 
Butterwick (186). (Bronze axe.) 
Cherry Burton (279). Four. 
Claughton Moor. (Contained stones with cups and 

Cold Kirby (336). 
Cowlam (208, bronze in three, seven others, some with 

Danby Moor. Many. One has a ring of stones. 


Yorkshire {conid.) — 

Driffield, Moors near. Many. Objects from them in the 
Driffield Museum. The Danes' graves are late Celtic. 
Joiirn. Anth. Inst., 1903, 66. 

Duggleby. Howe Hill Barrow {Journ. Anth. Inst. , xxii.'3). 

Egton (334). "William Howe." (Jet beads. "Three 
Howes." (Burnt bones and a flint.) 

Etton (2S2). Seven. 

Ferry Fryston (371). 

Fimber. (Jet necklace.) 

Fimber, on wolds near. (Barrow with oaken coffin.) 

Flying Dales. Several. 

Folkton (271). t 

Canton (169). Flints and pottery. 

Gilling (343). Six. 

Goathland, "Simon Howe." 

Goodmanham (286). Thirty-eight. (One contained 
covered vase, another jet necklace and earrings.) 
*Gristhorpe. (Oak coffin, bronze knife. Objects in Scar- 
borough Museum.) f 

Harpham. (Flints,)! 

Helperthorpe. (191-203.) (Flints, bronze, alien inter- 
ment in one.) 

Heslerton (141). Three barrows. Here formerly long 
barrow, destroyed 1868. 

Hunmanby. Two. f 

Hutton Buscel (357). "The Three Tremblers," and 

Hutton Cranswick. (Perforated canine of wolf. Proc. 
Yorks. Phil. Soc.) 

Ilkley, near. Many. 

Kilburn (339). (In one a number of cup-marked stones.) 

Kilham. " Danes Graves. " (Early Iron Age. Proc. Soc. 
Ant., ii. xvii. 119.) 

Kirby Grindalyth (140). 

Kirby Underdale (132). (With alien Saxon interments. 
Flints and burnt bones.) 

Langtoft (204). (Pottery.) 

Langton (136). (Several interments. Bones, beads, 


Yorkshire (contd.) — 

Londesborough (331). 

Lythe. f 

Market Weighton. Many near. 

Melmerby Common. (Bone Fibula.) 

Newbold, N. of. Five opened 1877 {Proc. Soc. Ant., 

ii. vii. 321). 
Over Sitton (336). 
Potter Brompton Wold (160). Five. (Flints, pottery, 

burnt and unburnt bones.) 
Rudstone (229). Nine barrows. 
Runwick and Staithes, cliffs between. 
*Rylston (374). Scale House. (Interment in hollowed 

oak-tree. Clothes of corpse.) 
Sherburn (145). Several barrows. (Pottery, flints, stone 

Skipwith Common. 

Slingsby (347). Thirteen. (In one a bone fibula.) 
Thwingf (256). Near this is "Willy Howe," a large 

barrow opened in 1857, and again by Greenwell. f 
Weaverthorpe (192). Flints. 
Welburn (356). 
West Tanfield, near Ripon. "Centre Hill." (Oak 

coffin, flints, and pottery.) 
Willerby (180). Nine. (Flints, pottery.) f 
Wykeham Moor. (Cup-marked stones.) 
(Further notes in Gentlernati's Mag., Ixii. 84, and Ixiii. 

16 ; and in Ord's History of Cleveland.) 



SINCE many of the megalithic monuments are un- 
doubtedly of a sepulchral nature, and it is highly 
probable that all of them may be of that character, 
they naturally fall into place after the burial mounds con- 
sidered in the last chapter. Monuments of this character 
have been most elaborately classified by Lukis^ in a paper 
which should be studied by those working at the subject. 

Dolmens. — The skeleton of one kind of long barrow — the 
chambered variety — as we saw in the last chapter, consisted 
of a cell or cells constructed of great stones. If the earth 
or stones of which the mound or cairn consisted be removed, 
the skeleton will remain behind exposed, and is then called 
a dolmen (daul-maen, table-stone). Mr. Gowland would 
enlarge the definition so as to make the term connote also 
monuments of the same kind still embedded in their mound, 
and would thus define the class of objects now under con- 
sideration : Stone burial chambers, generally of rude mega- 
lithic structure, larger than cists, whether covered by a 
mound or not. In popular parlance, however, the dolmen 
or Druid's Altar or cromlech — the last two misleading 
names — is an uncovered structure of stones, made up of 
two, three, four or more slabs standing upright and sup- 
porting a large flat stone, the ** cap-stone." (See Figs. 65 
and 66 and Fig. 67, which gives a view of the double 
dolmen at Plas Newydd or Anglesea Castle, Isle of Angle- 

* ArchcEologia , xxxv. 232. 


sea.) Sometimes there may have been a stone floor, but 
oftener there is no trace of anything of the kind. vSome- 
times, though rarely, the dolmen is double, as in the 
Anglesea example. Or — if indeed this should be classed 
amongst dolmens— there may be the remains of several 
chambers as at Weyland Smith's Forge on the Berkshire 
Downs, where the remains of a chambered tumulus lie 
uncovered in the interior of a little copse. It has been 
suggested by some, notably by Fergusson,^ that some of 
these monuments were never covered with a mound, but 
were always sub-aerial. This view, which is supported by 
Mr. A. L. Lewis," seems certainly to be gaining ground, 
and it must be admitted that a careful examination of the 
circumstances and surroundings of a certain number of 
dolmens renders it very difficult to believe that they were 
ever included within a mound. That many of these struc- 
tures should have been stripped of their superincumbent 
mound is certainly remarkable, but it is unquestionably 
true that some of them have been exposed in recent times. 
For example, Kits Coty House was still partly enclosed in 
a sepulchral mound in the eighteenth century,^ and the 
dolmen at West Lanyon, in Cornwall, the cap-stone of 
which is believed to weigh fifteen tons, was entirely covered 
with earth until the beginning of the last century, when the 
soil was carted away by a farmer who wished to utilise it for 
the improvement of his land. There was no idea that the 
mound was other than a natural one, until one hundred 
cartloads of earth had been removed, when the cap-stone 
began to appear. When all the earth had been carried away 
the dolmen was fully exposed. Some broken urns and 
bones were found inside, but it had evidently been rifled 
years before. Again at Cnocan, near Mallow, in County 
Cork, the stones of a cairn were removed gradually for 
the purpose of road-mending, thus exposing a fine dolmen 

1 Rude Stone Monuments. ~ Man, 1907, 26. 

^ Rice Holmes* Ancient Britain, 66, footnote 3. 


"Devil's Den," near Marlborough 

Bodowr, Angelsea 



containing a skeleton with a bronze sword and other 
objects. The agriculturist has never had very tender 
feelings towards the relics of antiquity when they have 
seemed suitable for any of his purposes, though as late 
as 1859, in the Isle of Man, a farmer has actually been 
known to offer up a heifer in sacrifice, to prevent any 

Plas Newydd, Anglesea 

harm befalling him in consequence of the opening of a 
tumulus on his land. It is unfortunate that similar or 
any motives have not restrained other early depredators. 

''Farmer Green," said Stukeley, in 1710, removed the 
stones from a long barrow near that at West Kennett "to 
make mere-stones withal," i.e.^ boundary stones, probably 
the boundaries of his sheep-walks. This wretch was the 
great destroyer of the Avebury avenues and circles, and, 
according to Thurnam, was probably responsible for the 
removal of the peristalith which originally encircled the 



West Kcnnett barrow. To disinterments of this kind we 
owe the existing uncovered dolmens of the country. These 
single cells, covered or imcovered, vary considerably in 
size. Perhaps the smallest in these islands is that at 
Bodowr, in the Isle of Anglesea, which will just about 
accommodate one person in a crouched position. (See 
Fig. 66.) From this we ascend to the larger Kit's Coty 
House, to the great dolmen at Pentre-Ifan, and — though 
monuments of this size are unknown in England — to 
constructions of the magnitude of that at New Grange, 
near Drogheda, or the Chamber of Giants at Om, near 
Copenhagen. In this last there is a passage three metres 
in length which leads into a large chamber, spacious and 
high enough for twenty people to walk about in it. The 
walls, like those of the passage, are formed of large, rough 
stones, flat and erect. The spaces between them are care- 
fully filled with small stones placed one upon another. 
The roof of the chamber is formed of large slabs long 
enough to rest upon the tops of the standing stones. Over 
this is still the earthen mound, but suppose it removed, 
and we should have a dolmen — in the common acceptation 
of the term — of enormous size. Dolmens are known in 
many parts of the world. They are numerous in Brittany, 
and here, according to Lukis,^ they are always included 
in a mound of stone, or earth, or both. Out of one 
hundred and fifty dolmens in this district there are only 
eighteen about which there is no trace of a barrow. In 
some of these cases, too, there are still the remains of the 
passage which led to the interior, a passage which would 
have been quite useless had the structure always been 
sub-aerial and free-standing. Part of the mound still 
exists which covered the dolmen near Corancez, in the 
district of Chartres, an example with a cap-stone fifteen by 
ten-feet-six in size.' The Breton dolmens nearly all have 

1 Pruc. Soc. A)it., 1872, 366. 2 Lewis, Journ. Anth. Inst, 1890, 68. 


openings between the south and the east of the compass, 
and where there are avenues they are oriented in the same 
way. Similar structures are met with in Spain and in the 
North of Africa, Algiers, and Tunis, where, however, they 
appear to be inferior in excellence of construction to those 
of Europe.^ They are found in Turkey, Syria, Palestine, 
India, Japan,- and also in Corea, but here rarely, and only 
in the south part, where they are of a class intermediate 
between the cist and the true dolmen. In Ireland they 
exist in extraordinary numbers. According to Borlase^ 
there are : Certain dolmens, 780 ; chambered tumuli, 50 ; 
uncertain, 68 ; total, 898. There are actually 163 in the 
county of Sligo alone. It has, in fact, been suggested* 
that there was a dolmen-building race which made the 
circuit of the world, passing through Europe and Asia, 
and everywhere leaving behind them monuments identical 
in form.^ For Sergi, however, the dolmens of Europe and 
Africa are all the product of his Mediterranean race. 

Cistvaens. — The cist, cistvaen (cista-maen, stone-chest), 
is perhaps best looked upon as a small variety of dolmen, 
from which it differs not only in size, but also, according 
to Greenwell's view, which we may take to be correct, that 
the dolmen was intended to be reopened from time to time 
for later burials, whilst the cist was closed up once for all. 
The term is generally applied to a box-like tomb formed 
of stones, and originally covered with a mound, though, 
like the dolmen, it may have in later times been robbed of 
this protection. Within the cist may have been placed a 
body burnt or unburnt, or less frequently, the remains of 
a burnt body in an urn. It is very difficult to ascertain 

^ See Ser^'i, passim, also Carton, L Aiithropologie, ii. i. 

- Gowland, Archceologia, Iv. 439. ^ Dolmens of I relayid. 

* Bertrand, De la Distribiition des Dolmens, etc., Paris, i860. 

^ " Everything- points to the conclusion that the earliest dolmen builders 
of Britain retreated from Gaul before the sturdy round-headed invaders : 
and it is useless to enquire whether the Mediterranean stock, to which the 
British, like the earlier French dolmen builders, belonged, originated in 
Europe, in Asia, or in Africa. We only know that the oldest traces of the 
race were discovered in the Riviera." Rice Holmes' Ancient Britain, 67. 


what relationship in point of time the dohnen and the 
cist bore to one another. The stone bed or coffin 
may have grown into the vault, or the vault may have 
diminished into the bed. In Brittany both kinds have 
been found in close relation, perhaps the smaller in 
distinct subordination to the larger. Whichever came 
first it seems fairly clear that there was a time when both 
were being constructed. Perhaps position or wealth, or 
even personal caprice, may have been the only determin- 
ing factor in the choice between the two methods of inter- 

Circles. — Here we approach a much more difficult prob- 
lem, and one on which a vast amount of writing has been 
expended. In consonance Avith the general idea of this 
book little notice will be taken of the theories which have 
been brought forward to explain the stone circles of this 
and other lands. Here the main object w^ill be to explain 
the classes and structure of these objects. For further 
information readers may be recommended to consult the 
works mentioned in the footnotes.^ That some of the 
circles were sepulchral in character there can be no sort of 
doubt, and with this class w'e may first deal before dis- 
cussing those as to whose nature some still feel a hesita- 
tion, (i) Circles composed of cists. There can, of course, 
be no doubt as to the nature of this form of circle. Near 
Port Erin, in the Isle of Man, there is an example of this 

^ Some idea of the mass of literature on the subject may be g-ained from 
the statement that Mr. Jerome Harrison's valuable and careful Bibliography 
of Stonehejige and Avehury, Wilts Arch, and N. H. Soc, xxxii. i, runs 
to more than one hundred and sixty pages. This may be consulted, as well 
as the following- : Fergusson, I^ude S/onc Monuments, though manj' of the 
theories there put forward are now exploded ; Evans, Archceological Review, 
ii. 312, a most important paper ; various articles b\' Lewis \n Jour. Anthrop. 
Inst. In the author's little book. Life in Early Britain, will also be found 
a summary of the theories up to the date of its publication. See also Colley 
March, Trans. Lane, and Chesh. Antiq. Soc, 188S, and Lockyer and Penrose, 
Proc. Roy. Soc, 452. 


kind in the Meayll Circle.^ This circle, which is placed 
near three little prehistoric villages, each consisting of 
four to sixteen hut-circles, consists of six symmetrically- 
arranged sets of cists, each a tritaph, i.e. two tangential 
and one radial. There is some evidence that a cist formerly 
existed in the centre of the circle. The floor of each cist 
was paved with flat stones, and all the interments were 
after cremation. There were two to five urns in each 
tangential cist, or in the proximal end of the radial. This 
circle had two openings in it, one to the north and one to 
the south. According to Jewitt,- there is a somewhat 
similar circle in the Channel Islands, but I know of 
nothing like it in England. (2) Circles composed of stones 
formerly enclosing a tumulus. Whether it may have been 
for the purpose of supporting the mound, or of indicating 
that it was a place under tabu, or of serving as a " ghost 
hedge " to keep the unruly spirits of the dead within 
bounds, there is no doubt that a peristalith, or low en- 
closure of stones, often surrounded a funeral mound. 
This arrangement, which has already been alluded to 
in the previous chapter, is not confined to this country. 
Pausanias, writing in the second century A.D., mentions 
the interest with which he examined the grave of Aegyptus, 
because Homer had alluded to it, and he describes it as a 
mound of earth of no great size, and enclosed in a circular 
kerbing of stones, an account which he also gives of other 
tombs. In a great many cases, as, for example, in that of 
the great barrow at West Kennett (see Fig. 58), it is the 
ring of stones which has gone, whilst the mound remains, 
for the stones are available for many purposes from road- 
mending upwards. But in some instances it is the mound 
which seems to have disappeared, and the circle is then 
left behind as a ring of low and often prostrate stones. 

^ See Herdmaa and Kynnode, Trans. Biol. Soc. Liverpool, October 13th, 
1893. - Op ciL, p. 78. 


(3) Circles composed of stones formerly contained within 
a barrow. The hedge of stones was sometimes included 
within the substance of the mound itself, instead of forming 
a low wall around its base externally. Such a circle is 
described by Bateman^ in a barrow near Cawthorn Camps 
in the North Riding of Yorkshire. **By cutting," he 
says, "from the north towards the centre, we uncovered 
some flat stones, set upright in the ground, which on 
further examination were found to be part of a complete 
circle, seven yards in diameter, standing about two feet 
above the natural level, and enclosing a grave." This, as 
he points out, is what would have been called a "Druidical 
circle " had the earth all been removed from the stones. 
The Flax Dale barrow, described by Jewitt,'- is another 
example of the same kind of thing. GreenwelT^ found 
a circle of chalk stones with an opening on the east side, 
which had a radius of thirty feet, and was enclosed in 
a mound eighty feet in diameter. It is obvious that by 
the removal of the earth such a circle would be exposed, 
and present the appearance with which we are familiar in 
the smaller stone circles of the country. It is probable 
that to this and the class immediately preceding it most of 
these objects belong. (4) Small circles, with central in- 
terment, without mound. Excavations made in the interior 
of small circles have sometimes revealed the existence of 
interments, though there was no mound or trace of mound 
left. This must not be taken as implying that there never 
was a mound, but that we have no evidence of the existence 
of any such feature in these particular cases. An example 
of this kind is recorded by Bateman* on Stanton Moor, 
where, "near the Andle Stone, we noticed a small circle 
of six stones, four of which were upright and two pros- 
trate, the diameter being about twenty feet." On digging 

1 op. til., p. 207. - Op. fit., p. 71. 

3 Op. cit., p. 145. * Op. ciL, p. 84. 


in it it was found that "a grave had been dug for the 
reception of three or four cinerary urns and as many 
incense cups." Fragments of calcined bones were found. 
A most remarkable double, concentric circle of wooden 
posts, enclosing a central interment, has recently been 
found at Bleasdale, near Garstang. In other cases, how- 
ever, careful examination has failed to reveal the existence 
of any traces of a burial within the circle. Such, according 
to Mr. Collingwood,^ is the case at Sunken Kirk, near 
Swinside, the third largest circle in Cumberland. Here 
the results of a searching examination were entirely 
negative. There were no traces of interments, nor of 
ancient fires, nor was there any tumulus, or any remains 
of a tumulus, in the interior of the circle. 

In respect of all these circles connected with interments 
— and the same is true of'the larger class which has yet to 
be dealt with — one special point requires notice, and that 
is their incompleteness. There is always an interruption 
in the circle, as there is in the ditch which includes a 
barrow. In the case of the larger circles this interruption 
may be looked upon as a doorway or entrance, but in the 
case of the enclosed circles, those which were buried in 
the material of the mound, if a gateway at all, it can only 
have been intended for the use of the spirits of the 
departed. Whatever its idea or intention, it is there, and 
Canon Greenwell, who calls attention to it, notes the 
similarity of idea with that of the penannular ring, when 
that shape is not required by the exigencies of use, and 
with that of the frequently interrupted circles which are 
met with in the case of cup and circle markings on rocks. 

Passing now to the Great Circles likeStonehenge and Ave- 
bury, can we say anything as to the sepulchral character 
of these? According to some they are purely religious 
edifices, though, like many of our modern churches, 

^ Proc. Soc. Ant.j ii. xix. 98. 


surrounded by a cemetery, as was the case at Stoneheng-e, 
where there are three hundred barrows in the immediate 
vicinity. But beyond this, according to another idea, 
which may well be the correct one, the great circles are 
actually derived from sepulchral monuments. "The stone 
circle," says Mr. Arthur Evans, '* that originally performed 
a structural function in early dwellings and in certain 
barrows, by propping up the superincumbent mass of 
earth, becomes itself an independent feature in sepulchral 
ritual. It separates itself from the mound to form a huge 
circle of monoliths, surrounding it at an even distance ; or 
it may fulfil a ritual purpose by itself, apart from any 
central mound or chamber." The same writer states it 
as his opinion that the component parts of such circles, 
namely, the circle itself, the avenue of stones which leads 
up to it, imperfect at Stonehenge, though better marked 
at Avebury, and the central dolmen, wanting at Stone- 
henge, are all of them amplifications of the simplest 
sepulchral forms. The circle is an enlarged version of 
the ring of stones placed round the grave mound ; the 
dolmen represents the cist w^ithin it ; the avenue is merely 
the continuation of the underground gallery which leads 
to the sepulchral chamber, which remains as a ritual 
survival when, owing to cremation or other causes, the 
galleried chamber to which it led has itself been modified 
away. He also thinks that the central object of Stone- 
henge was probably a sacred oak-tree, "the Celtic image 
of Zeus," according to Maximus Tyrius. Stonehenge 
is perhaps the latest of these monuments ; it is, at any 
rate, the only one in which there is evidence of dressing 
or workmanship as applied to the stones of which the 
monument is constructed. Mr. Arthur Evans did not 
hesitate to place it at quite a late date, holding that it 
belongs " to the same age as the latest class of the round 
barrows by which it was surrounded— a class of barrows 


which it would not be safe to bring down beyond the 
approximate date of 250 B.C." On the other hand, since 
the article from which this quotation has been taken was 
written, an opportunity for a more complete investigation 
of the circle has been afforded, and has been conducted 
under the guidance of Mr. Gowland, whose discoveries 
seem to show that it was erected at the very end of the 
Neolithic period, when bronze was just becoming known, 
but was still unutilised for the purpose of making im- 
plements.^ Stonehenge consists of the following parts : 
(i.) a shallow ditch and bank, which opens out at one 
point into an avenue flanked by a ditch and bank on 
either side ; (ii.) a ring of hewn local sarsen stones, with 
imposts mortised to them ; (iii.) a ring of less perfectly 
hewn, diabase pillars ; (iv.) an ellipse of hewn sarsen 
trilithons, with mortise and tenon connections ; (v.) an 
ellipse of less perfectly hewn diabase pillars ; (vi.) a single 
recumbent rock of different character from the rest. The 
plan, which Mr. Gowland has kindly permitted me to 
reproduce (Fig. 68), is the result of his recent survey. It 
shows the standing and recumbent stones, differentiating 
between "sarsen" and diabase, but not the ditch, which 
is too far distant to come into a plan on this scale. The 
portions marked "excavations" are the places examined 
during the operations for raising the stone described in 
Mr. Gowland's paper in Arcliceologia cited above. The 
igneous, or "blue" stones, were formerly regarded as 
strangers brought from a distance, but Professor Judd 
has recently examined them, and believes that they are 
ice-borne boulders, the relics of a former drift deposit. 
He also thinks that they were probably commoner formerly 
than now, and that, perhaps, an accidental abundance of 
them at or near Stonehenge may have helped to determine 
the selection of this site. In the examination recently 

^ Man, 1902, 6 and i6; ArcJiiCologia, Iviii. 38. 


made it was found that the dressing of the stones had not 
been accomplished with the aid of metal tools as was 
formerly thought. ' ' The tabular structure of the ' sarsens, ' 
and their great inequality of hardness, makes very little 
working necessary. They seem to have been broken to 
shape by alternate heating and chilling, and by the use of 
the heavy mauls ; but their preliminary dressing took 
place at a distance, and all that can be seen at Stone- 
henge are the grooves pounded out by the mauls and 
the traces of the sideward blows by which the interven- 
ing ridges were obliterated. The ' blue-stones ' show no 
grooves, but also no such careful shaping as the 'sarsens.' 
The surface tooling was effected by hammer-stones." 
(Gowland.) The tools found during the excavations were 
of several classes : (i.) haches, longer or shorter; (ii.) an 
intermediate type much chipped and blunted ; (iii.) hammer- 
axes ; (iv.) intermediate types of hammer-stones with 
traces of an edge. The four types thus described were 
all of flint, unhafted, and too brittle for use on "hard 
sarsens" or " blue-stones," though they would have been 
serviceable for working the softer varieties, (v.) Regular 
hammer-stones of quartzite, more or less chipped, from 
one to six pounds in weight ; (vi.) quartzite mauls, with 
two well-defined faces, and traces of a waist, as if to hold a 
rope ; these weighed from thirty-seven to sixty-four pounds, 
and are similar to the great stone mauls used in Japan, 
which are raised and let fall by ropes held by several men, 
whilst another man directs their aim by a wooden handle. 
The mode of erection of these great stones has often 
excited curiosity. Those of the outermost circle, thirty 
in number when the circle was perfect, are each sixteen 
feet in height and three and a half feet distant from one 
another. The stones of the great trilitha of the ellipse 
gradually rise in height to twenty-five feet, the stature 
of the tallest. The diabase pillars are only about six feet 



40 50 

FIG. 68 


in height. As regards the problem of their setting up, 
Mr. Gowland remarks : "It differed in different cases, for 
the 'recumbent stone,' twenty-five feet long, went only- 
four feet into the ground, while the ' leaning stone,' twenty- 
nine feet long, went eight feet down. The reason is 
obvious, for the two stones were set up as a pair to carry 
a lintel in the most important part of the whole structure. 
The shorter stone, therefore, being set less deep, had a 
more elaborate base, and, to gain base, was only dressed 
on the parts which showed above ground. The leaning 
stone was erected by (i.) excavating a pit with three 
vertical walls and one sloping rim on the side next the 
stone ; (ii.) raising the head-end of the stone by levers 
and timber packing till its foot slid down the sloping rim 
into the pit ; (iii.) hoisting it from about fifty degrees into 
an erect position by ropes ; (iv.) securing it in its place by 
the smaller ' sarsens ' which support its oblique lower 
surface. Similar leverage is customarily employed in 
Japan with trunks of trees, and many rope-ends each 
pulled by one man. The ' recumbent' stone, on the other 
hand, was (i.) supported at its foot-end on a low wall of 
small 'sarsens'; then (ii.) tipped upright, as above, 
against two large 'sarsens' placed in front; then (iii.) 
packed tight, as above, with disused mauls." On one 
stone a stain of copper oxide was discovered, from which 
it is concluded that that metal was known though not 
employed in the execution of the work. 

From what we know of the date of the commence- 
ment of the Bronze Age in this country, then, the date 
of the circle may be set down at somewhere between 
2000-1800 B.C. An attempt has been made to work 
out the date on the hypothesis that the circle was 
oriented with respect to the sun at the time of the 
summer solstice. 

To the N.E. of Stonehenge is the detached stone 



known as ''The Friar's Heel." Lockyer and Penrose 

working on these lines obtained a date of 1680 B.C. 

with a possible error in either direction of two hundred 


All that remains of Avebury shows us that when it was 

in its prime it was a far more imposing edifice than 

Stonehenge, and that Au- 
brey was right in saying 
that it as far surpassed 
that erection as a cathedral 
does a parish church. It 
has, however, been so much 
despoiled by "Farmer 
fGreen" and other depre- 
dators that it requires a 
plan and some imagination 
to form any sort of an idea 
of what it must originally 
have looked like. The great 
FIG. 69. PLAN OF AVEBURY, SHOWING rampart and fosse are still 


TROBABLY EXISTED therc, and form, perhaps, 

the most striking of the 
existing parts of the temple. They enclose an area of 
twenty-eight and a half acres, and have a diameter of 
1,200 feet. The depth of the fosse is still forty feet, 
and as it is inside the rampart it is evident that its 
purpose was not defensive. Within the ditch was a 
circle of rough stones — unlike Stonehenge, the stones 
here are quite unhewn — which encloses two circles, each 
with a smaller concentric circle in its interior. In the 
centre of each pair of circles there appears to have been 
an arrangement of stones called a cove. These points 
will be seen indicated in Fig 69, where also it will be 
observed that the commencement of two avenues is repre- 
sented. One of these is still sufficiently obvious, and 


leads in the direction of West Kennett, of the existence of 
the other there is more doubt. 

A few notes concerning some cf the other circles in 
this country will be given in the list at the end of the 
chapter, and attention may be called to the figure showing 
the set of circles at Stanton Drew (Fig. 70). Before 

W0 %^ 

Stanton Drew 

leaving this for the next group of megaliths, however, 
attention must be called to a quite different form of circle 
met with in Cornwall. Here encircling walls of large 
stones, set on edge and with earth between them, are 
found as the fence around groups of hut dwellings ; these 
are, of course, in no way akin to the circles which 
have lately been engaging our attention. 

Alignments. — Rows or avenues of stones are often 
associated with stone circles, as we have just seen to be 
the case at Avebury. In this country this class of monu- 
ment is best seen on Dartmoor, though the objects there 
are almost insignificant when compared with the avenues 


of Carnac in Brittany. On Dartmoor^ there are thirty- 
eight stone rows, of which twenty-five are associated 
with circles. In its typical and complete form, in fact, 
the Dartmoor row begins with a circle and ends with 
a menhir. Within the circle is very commonly, though 
not always, a barrow or a cistvaen. The circles are 
free-standing, and have never been the supports of a 

The most celebrated are the Merivale rows, of which 
the north avenue commences with a circle around a 
menhir. The south avenue ends with a menhir at each 
end, and has a circle twelve feet in diameter midway. 
This circle once enclosed a cistvaen. To the north-west 
of the rows is the great menhir, with the remains of a 
small circle around it, and also the fragments of a row. 
The great circle, which is near by, is fifty-four feet in 
diameter, and at present isolated. It may, however, very 
probably have been connected with the other works by an 
avenue now destroyed. 

At Callernish- there is a similar conjunction of circle 
and avenues. The circle is forty-two feet in diameter, 
and single lines of four or five stones each extend 
E., S., and W. from it. Somewhat E. of N. there are 
two longer lines, one of nine and one of ten stones. The 
ends of these lines are 294 feet from the centre of the 
circle, i.e. just seven diameters of the circle. 

The view that these circles were solar or stellar temples 
is one which has long been suggested, and has recently 
received great support from the writings of Lockyer,^ 

^ For an account of these objects see Worth, Cornivall Roy. Inst. Joiirn., 
xii. 76. 

- Lewis, Cornivall Roy. Inst. Joiirn., xiv. 378, and Proc. Roy. Sac. Anf. 
Ireland, ix. 26S. 

^' Stonelienge and other British Stone Monionents. Sir Norman Lock- 


Somerville/ and others. Mr. Lewis, for example, who 
has devoted much attention to this particular question, has 
pointed out that of twenty-one circles in South Britain, 
nineteen have special reference to the N.E. and nine to 
the S.E. 

The theory put forward is that not only the circles, 
but also many dolmens, menhirion, and other mega- 
liths in association with mountain peaks or other objects 
formed sight lines oriented for the purpose of mark- 
ing solstitial sunrises or sunsets, or both ; some for 
sunrise or sunset at the equinoxes ; some for sunrise or 
sunset at a point equidistant in time between solstice and 
equinox (namely, at the beginning of May, August, 
November, and February), some for the rising and setting 
of a star, or of the moon. There seems considerable 
probability that such monuments as Stonehenge were 
oriented with reference to the summer solstice, but the 
relation of others to stars is a question which can only 
adequately be discussed by those who have a much more 
profound knowledge of astronomy than falls to the lot of 
the present writer. But there can be no doubt that there 
is a most fruitful field for inquiry in connection with the 
study of the relation of megalithic monuments to the sun 
and other heavenly bodies. 

Menhirion. — The menhir, or standing stone (Figs. 71 
and 72), is as ancient an institution as it is world-wide, 
and, in the shape of obelisks and monuments, persistent. 
Such stones, as indicated in the section immediately 
preceding, are sometimes met with in conjunction with 
other varieties of megaliths. Sometimes, as at the Tingle- 

' Proc. R. S. A>2tiq. of Ireland, part 2, vol. xxxix. p. 192. See 
also a discussion of the question in Ancient Britain, by Rice Holmes, 
p. 215. 




•.- ii'-.^.^ -•■•■v-» ■■'■■-■ '■•"■ 

, V'< 

Rollright, Warwickshire 

stone barrow, the menhir is on the mound, sometimes it 
is, as at Ablington, inside the chamber of burial, some- 
times it is embedded in the substance of the mound itself. 
Again, the menhir may be quite isolated and independent 
of other ancient remains. Perhaps this is the most 


common occurrence. In this country they are not 
usually of great size, that at Clun, for example, measures 
eight feet in height, six and a half feet in width, and 
eight inches to a foot in thickness. In Brittany menihirion 
exist of much greater size, for that at Dol is twenty-eight 

Woeful Dane's Bottom, Gloucestershire 

feet above the soil and sixteen feet below. The great 
menhir of Men-er-H'roeck at Locmariaquer was sixty-four 
feet high before it was shattered by a stroke of lightning. 
These stone pillars sometimes bear cup-and-ring mark- 
ings. Occasionally they are perforated, as in the case of 
the Men-an-Tol in Cornwall and the menhir at Woeful 
Dane's Bottom in Gloucestershire. (Fig. 72.) In this last 


case, however, the perforations are small and natural, but 
may still have added to the importance, perhaps to the 
sanctity, of the stone in the eyes of its erectors. Like 
many other menhirion, this object is just a rough, un- 
shaped block of stone, like many another that might be 
met with on the seashore. It is only the inexperienced 
who imagine that menhirion must necessarily be slender, 
shapely monuments. Perforated menhirion occur also in 
Ireland^ and Cyprus.- 


This list includes a few cistvaens, which are specially indicated. 

BERKSmRE. — " Wayland Smith's Cave." Remains of chambered 
dolmen in clump of trees, on downs near White Horse 
and Icknield Street. {ArchceoL, xxxii. 312.) 

Cornwall. — Ballowal. 

Caerwynen Quoit, in Pendarves Park, near Camborne. 
Carn Kenidzhek, near St. Just. 
Chapel-carn-Brea, St. Just. (Also cist.) (Small dolmen 

in mound.) 
*Chun Cromlech, near the Land's End. 
Crouza Downs, St. Keverne. "The Three Brothers of 

Grugith." (Cistvaen.) 
Hawkstor, near the Stripple Stones. 
*Lanyon Quoit, Boswavas Moor. Upset in 181 5, but 

restored in 1824, though not as it originally stood. 

{ArchcBol.^ xxxii. 314.) 
Mulfra Quoit, near Lamorna Cove. (Ruined.) One mile 

from this is another ruined dolmen. 
Pawton, St. Breock. (Small dolmen in a mound.) 
Sancreed. (Small dolmen in mound.) 
St. Columb Major, i S.E. of. (Ruined.) 
Tregifhan, St. Just. 

Trethill, nr. Sherock. (Cistvaens. Jl. Plym. I?isi.,\n\. 134.) 
Trevethy Quoit, near St. Clear. 

West Lanyon Quoit, Boswavas Moor. See p. 175. 
*Zennor Quoit, near St. Ives. 

^ Proc. Roy. Soc. Ant. Ireland, vi. 158 ; Wakeman's Handbook, p. 14. 
^ L Anthropologie, vi. 158. 


Derbyshire. — Minning Low. 

Ringham Low. Chambered tumulus. (Jewitt, p. 70.) 
Taddington, near. "The Five Wells." Chambered 
tumulus. (//;., p. 69.) 

Devonshire — 

(Nearly 100 cistvaens in this county are enumerated in 
the 2 1st Report of the Barrow Committee, Trans. Devon. 
Ass. for Adv. ofSci., 1902, xxxiv.) 
Archerton, Dartmoor. Cistvaen. 
Brown Heath. 

Cawsand Beacon. Cistvaen. 
Coryton Ball. Ruined dolmen. 
Grims Grove. Ruined dolmen. 
Harter Tor. 
Hound Tor Down. 
Lake Head Hill. Two cistvaens. 
Lundy Island. 

Merivale Bridge. Ruined dolmen. 
Morte Point, near Ilfracombe. 
*"The Spinster's Rock," near Drewsteignton. 
Trowlesworthy Tor. 
Yar Tor, near Buckfastleigh. Cistvaen. 

(See also list of Megalithic remains infra.) 

Dorsetshire. — Carlben Circle, near, on the Bridport-Dorchester 
road. (Ruined.) 
**'The Grey Mare and Her Colts." Gorwell, Blackdown. 
"The Hellstone. " On Ridge Hill, above Portisham. 

Two Gates, on the Roman Bridport-Dorchester road. 

Gloucestershire (city of Bristol). — Stoke Bishop. 

Herefordshire. — "Arthur's Stone." Moccas, near the Dore 

Kent. — " The Countless Stones," near Aylesford. (Apparently 
remains of a chambered tumulus.) 
*" Kit's Coty House," near Aylesford. {ArchcBol.^ ii. 116.) 

Monmouthshire. — Newchurch, near Caerwent. 

Northumberland. — Alnwick Deer Park. Cistvaen of Bronze 


Oxfordshire. — Enstone, near. "The Hoar Stone. " (Ruined.) 
Steeple Aston, near. "The Hoar Stone." 
Rollright. " The Whispering Knights." (Partly ruined.) 

Somerset. — Wellow. Dolmen in mound. {Jl. Ajith. Insi.^-xA.iiS.) 

Westmorland. — Brougham. Moorhouse Farm. Cistvaen with 
contracted body. Food and drink vessels. 

Wiltshire. — *"The Devil's Den." Clatford Bottom, near 

"The Hareholes." Two cistvaens at Lockeridge. 
Nettleton, near Castle Combe. 
West Kennett. Dolmen in mound. Ruined. {ArchcBoL, 

xlii. 213.) 


Cheshire. — "The Bridestones. " On Cloud Hill, near Congle- 
ton. Remains of circle and avenue. 

Cornwall.^ — " The Bhnd Fiddler." Menhir, Higher Drift, near 

Penzance. Two other menhirion near this. 
Boscawen-un. Circle with central standing stone, a 

most rare occurrence. 
Bosporthenis. Circle on downs to E. of. 
BoUeit. Circle. 

Carwen. Circle and enclosures. 
*" Dawns Men." (Stone Dance.) " The Merry Maidens." 

Circle of nineteen stones, near Lamorna Cove. 
Duloe circle, near St. Keynes. Probably enclosing ring 

of a cairn. 
Fernacre, near Garrah. Circle 140 feet in diameter ; 

forty-five out of fifty-five stones still standing. 
"The Giant's Staflf." Menhir 12 feet high, near Pen- 

*" The Hurlers." Three intersecting circles near the 

Cheesewring. {Arch. Journ.^ 1862.) 
Kenidzhek. Alignment near "The Merry Maidens," 

and row of three whole stones at Boslow end of moor. 
The Longstone. Menhir near Woon Gumpus Common, 

Land's End. 

^ For a paper on Stone Circles of East Cornwall, by St. G. Gray, see 
ArchcEologia, Ixi. i. i. See also Lewis, y/. Anthrop. Inst., 1895 and 1905. 


Cornwall {contd.) — 

*"Men-an-Tol," or **The Crick Stone." A holed stone, 

the centre of three monoliths. The hole is 21 x i8 

inches on one side, smaller on the other. The stone 

is 3 feet 9 inches in height. 
"The Merry Maidens." Circle on Carn Kenidzhek, near 

St. Just, 72 feet in diameter. 
Newtown, near St. Buryan. Two holed stones. 
*"The Nine Maidens." Boskednan, near Ding Dong. 

Circle 72 feet in diameter. 
♦'The Nine Maidens." On St. Breock Downs. Eight 

stones, formerly nine, forming an alignment 262 feet 

Pridden, near St. Buryan. Menhir and Roundago. {Proc. 

Soc. Ant.^ ii. vi. 500.) 
"The Old Man," or "The Fiddler." On St. Breock 

Down, near "The Nine Maidens." Menhir 7| feet 

"The Pipers." Trewoofe, near St. Just. Two mono- 
liths 320 feet apart, and 13^ and 15I feet high re- 
Stannon Down, near Bodmin. Circle of seventy-six 

stones, 134 feet in diameter. 
" The Stripple Stones." Hawkstor, near Bodmin. Circle 

(five erect, eleven fallen) 148 feet in diameter. 
Tregaseale, St. Just. Two circles. 
"The Trippet Stones." One mile from "The Stripple 

Stones," on a moor near Carbilly. Circle (nine erect, 

four fallen), 105 feet in diameter. 

Cumberland — 

Ainstable. Circle. 

Bampton Common. Standing stones. 

Burn Moor, near Eskdale. Circles. {Proc. Soc. Ant.y ii. 

xii. 92.) 
Dacre, Yamonside. Circles. (Perhaps natural.) 
Dalston, Chapel Flat. Circle. 
*" Grey Yauds." Circle. Cumwhitton, King Harry Fell 

(Nearly destroyed.) 
*" Keswick." Circle. 
Kirk Santon. "The Standing Stones," called "Giants' 
Graves," and two small circles. 


Cumberland {contd.) — 

Lamplugh, Stockhow. Circle. 
*" Long Meg- and her Daughters." Half-mile N. of Little 
Salkeld. Circle with cup-and-circle markings. There 
is a second small circle, which formerly had a cairn in 
its centre. Cup-and-circle markings here also. {Proc. 
Soc. Au^., ii. X. 310.) 
Studfold Gate. Reported remains of stone circle. 
Swarth Fell. Menhir. 
*Swinside, Sunkenkirk, near Millom. Circle. {Proc. Soc. 
Ant., ii. xix. 98.) 
(Note. — The circles at Annanside, Gutterby Kirkstones, and the Standing 
Stones at Hall Foss, all of which were near Whitbeck, have been destroyed.) 

Derbyshire — 

*Arborlow, Youlgrave. Circle with ditch and rampart. 
{Archceologia, vii. 112; Iviii. part 2; Man, 1903, 133, 

Beeley Moor, above Chatsworth. Circle. 

Cadster, near Chapel-en-le- Frith. Circle. 

Derwent, if S.E. of. Circle. 

Eastmoor, near Ramsley Lodge. Circle. 

Eyam, i| N. of, on Eyam Moor. "Wet Withins." 

Circle. {Man, 1903, 135 ; Jl. Anth. hist., 1874.) 
Froggatt Edge. Circle. 

Hathersage, near. Two circles with tumuli. 
"Marl Wark." 2\ miles W. of Dore. Circle. 
"The Nine Ladies," Stanton -in -the -Peak. Circle. 

{Archceologia, vi. 112; Man, 1903, 136.) 

Devonshire — 

Assycombe. Cairn and row. 
*"The Bair Down Man." Menhir, near Princetown. 

(Cf. Dartmoor Pictorial Records, iii. 56.) 
Batworthy. Three circles and rows. 
Bellaford Tor. Circle and cistvaen. 
Bisworthy. Circle. 
Brown Heath, near Erme Head. Avenue and circle 

enclosing dolmen. 
Challacombe Down. Four rows of stones with menhir. 
Cholwich Town. Circle and avenue. 
Cocks Tor. Circles and rows. 


Devonshire (contd.) — 

Conies Down. Cairns and rows. 
Cordon. Triple rows. 

Coryton Ball. Seven parallel rows of stones. 
Down Tor. Circle, row, and menhir. 

Drizzlecombe. Three circles, row, and menhir. 
*" The Grey Wethers." Two circles under Sittaford Tor. 
Gidleigh. Menhir. {Darim. Pict. Rec, iii. 56.) 
Glazecombe. Circle and row. 
Grimsgrove. Circle and cistvaen. 
Harford, near Ivybridge. Circle and cistvaen. 
Hound Tor. Circle with cistvaen. 

Lew Trenchard. Menhir. {Darim. Pict. Rec.^ iii. 56.) 
*" The Long Stones." Scorhill Down. Circle. {Dartm. 

Pict. Rec, I. 45.) 
Loo Hill, near Sidford. Menhir. 
*Merivale Bridge. Three circles, two avenues, and a 

menhir. {Dartm. Pict. Rec, i. 49.) 
"The Nine Maidens," or "The Nine Stones." Belstone 

Tor. Circle. 
Raybarrow. Circle. 
Ringmore. Circle. 
Shavercombe. Circle with cistvaen. 
*Shuffle Down. Five rows of stones, with "The Long 

Stone," a menhir, also pounds. 
Stalldon Moor. Circle with avenues. 
Throwleigh. Circle. 
Tolch Gate. Circle and avenues, 
Trowlesworthy Tor. Avenues and single row with 

Yardsworthy. Circle, row, and menhir. 
Yar Tor. Many lines of stones. 

(Note. — The megalithic and rude stone remains of Dartmoor, including 
Pounds and the different objects mentioned above, are very numerous, and 
some are very difficult to place. For further information, see a paper in 
Cornwall Roy. Inst, journal, xii. 76, also Page, Aji Exploration of Dart- 
moor, Baring Gould's Book of Dartmoor, and Trans. Plymouth Inst, x. 289, 
xi. 173. 


Dorsetshire. — "The Broad Stone." Fallen menhir, on road- 
side, near Winterborne Abbas. 
Carlben Circle, near Longbredy Gate. Stones almost 

entirely buried. A few isolated stones near by. 
Kingstone Russell, near. Menhir. 

" The Nine Stones." Small circle nearWinterborne Abbas. 
Osmington Hill. Small circle with remains of avenue. 
*Tenant Hill, near Kingston Russell Farm. Circle. 

Gloucestershire — 

"The Hoar Stone." Menhir, near Lower Swell. 
Marshfield. Remains of circle. 
*"The Tingle Stone." Menhir standing on a barrow 
near Avening. 
"The Whittle Stone." Menhir, near Lower Swell. 
*Woeful Dane's Bottom, near Minchinhampton. Menhir. 

Hampshire.— " The Long Stone." Menhir, near Brixton, Isle 
of Wight. 

Kent — Addington Park. Two circles with (?) remains of dolmens. 

Coldrum Farm, near Addington Park, on a hill. Circle 
with dolmen. (Lewis, Anthropologia, 1874 > ^^so Man, 
1904, 23 ; and Clinch, AlaUy 1904, 12.) 

Ryarsh, Gold Piece Field. 

White Horse Hill, in Poundgate or White Horse Wood. 
At this place and Ryarsh are blocks of stone which 
may have formed part of an avenue connecting the 
above-mentioned circles with Kit's Coty House, which 
is six miles distant. 

Lancashire. — Banniside, Coniston. Interment circle. 

*Birk Rigg, near Bardsea. Circle with enclosure and 
tumulus. {ArchcEologia, liii. 418.) 
Bleaberry Hawes. {lb.) 
*Bleasdale, near Garstang. A remarkable double circle of 
timber, with a central interment containing calcined 
"The Calderstones," near Liverpool. Arranged in a 
circle, but probably remains of a dolmen. Cup-and- 
circle markings. (Herdman, Trans. Liverpool Biol. 
Soc, Dec, 1896.) 
Knapperthaw, near Lowick. Remains of a circle. 
Rusland Whitestock. Menhir. 


Leicestershire — Charnwood Forest, near the Monastery. 
Doubtful circle, perhaps natural. 

Northumberland — 

Alnwick Park. " The Lon£jstone." Menhir. 
Carting-ton, near Debdon House. Part of circle. 
Doddiii'jton. Part of circle. 

"The Duddo Stones." Grindon Rig-. Part of circle. 
"The Five King's." Vale of Coquet. Part of circle. 
Flodden. Menhir. 
Humbleton. Menhir. 

"The Hurl Stone," near Lilburn. Menhir. 
Lordenshaw Camp, near. Rothbury. Avenues. 
*"The Poind and his Man." Two monoliths and two 
barrows were here in 171 8. One monolith has. been 
*Roddam, near. At the Three Stone Burn. Remains of 
a circle. Three upright, twelve fallen stones, 
Matfen. "The Standing Stone," near Corbridge. 

Swinburn, Chollerton. Menhir. 
Yeavering. Menhir. 

Oxfordshire — 

"The Devil's Quoits." Three large stones near Stanton 
*RolIright. Circle. Close by are (i) a partly ruined 
dolmen, "The Whispering Knights," and (2) a men- 
hir, "The King's Stone"; the latter just across the 
boundary in Warwickshire. (See an admirable account 
by A. Evans in Folk Lore, vi. 5). 

Shropshire — 

Clee Hill, near Abdon Burf. Circle and menhir. "The 
Giant's Staff." 
*Clun Valley, near Whitcott Keysett. Menhir. 
*" Mitchell's Fold." Circle near Stapeley Hill. 
Marshpool. Circle near Stapeley Hill. 
Stapeley Hill, summit of. Small, nearly buried circle. 
"The Whetstones," near Stapeley Hill. Possibly re- 
mains of circle. 


Somerset — 

'* Hauteville's Quoit," near Stanton Drew. Circle. 
*Stanton Drew. Circles. {Proc. Soc. Ant.^ 1883, 347.) 

Warwickshire — 

*"The King's Stone," near Long Compton, and close to 
the Rollright Stones in Oxfordshire. Menhir. 
Wardington. " The Hoar Stone." Menhir. 

Westmorland — 

Crosby Ravens worth. " Druid Circle." Circles. 
Gamelands, near Raisbeck Hall. Orton. Circles. 
*Gunnerfield, near Shap. Circles with cairns. (See Carlisle 

vol. Proc. Arch. Inst, and Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. x. 319.) 
*" Karl Lofts" and "The Guggleby Stone," near Shap. 
Circle and avenues. (See Gent. Mag. Lib. Arch., 
ii. 72.) 
Leaset Wood. Clifton Dykes. 
Lowther Scar, near Bempton. Circle. 
Moor Divock, Askham. Circles. Also " The Copstone. " 

Ravenstonedale, Rotherbridge. Circle, 

Wiltshire — 

*Avebury. Circle with ditch and avenue. Near this is 
Silbury Hill, an artificial mound of great size ; nature 
still undetermined. {Archceol. xxv. and Lord Avebury's 
Prehistoric Times. ) 
** Longstone Cove." Two stones only remaining between 
Beckhampton and Avebury. 
*Stonehenge. (See references in pp. 183-190.) 
West Kennett. Remains of circles. 
Note. — The circle on Overton Hill, East Kennett, has been destroyed. 

Yorkshire — 

"The Bride Stones." Bilsdale. Circle. 
"The Bride Stones." Doedale. Circle. 
"The Bride Stones," near Grosmont. Circle. 
"The Bride Stones." Sleights Moor, near Whitby, 

N. of. Circle. 


Yorkshire {contd.) — 

*' Danby Long Stone." Menhir, near the ancient village 
on Danby Moor. 
*" The Devil's Arrows." Three stones near Borough- 
bridge. {Proc. Soc. Ant.y ii. vii. 134.) 

"The Lad Stone," near Greetland. Menhir. 
*"The Rudstone." At Rudstone-on-the-Wolds, near 
Bridlington. Menhir. 

Simon Howe, near Goathland Mill Station. Three 
upright stones. 

"The Standing Stones." if S.W. of Robin Hood's 
Bay, on Flyingdales Moor. 

"The Wolf's Fold." Beacon Hill, near Slack. Circle. 


SCATTERED all over the face of the country, though 
in much greater numbers in some districts than in 
others, are a large variety of earthworks of a defensive 
character. From the great size which they sometimes 
reach, and the commanding positions which they fre- 
quently occupy, these memorials of the past attract, and 
have always attracted, a considerable amount of attention. 
It is only, however, of late years that any attempt has 
been made to arrange them in a scientific manner, and 
to assign dates to them on any other grounds than those 
supplied by the imagination. In looking through the 
pages of guide-books and the older county histories, one 
notes that such a camp has been assigned to the Britons, 
a second to the Romans, and a third to the Danes ; but 
for the truth of such assignations no evidence as a rule is 
forthcoming. Shape used to be relied upon as a criterion, 
the circular camps being considered British, the rect- 
angular Roman, and the oval Danish. This is now 
known to be a fallacious test, for, though many of the 
rectangular camps are of Roman origin, any hard and 
fast division like the above is misleading, and must be 
abandoned. To give but one example : Pitt-Rivers has 
shown by excavation that three rectangular camps — the 
South Lodge, Handley Down, and Martin Down en- 
trenchments, are all of the bronze period, and, therefore, 

^ Since the first edition of this book appeared great progress has been 
made in connection with the subject of earthworks. Mr. Hadrian Allcroffs 
monumental work Earthwork of Englatid {^\3l.cvi\\\\2lX\, 1908) contains an ex- 
haustive account of the whole subject, to which inquirers may be referred. 
A smaller book on the same subject has been published by Wall in the 
Antiquaries' Primers Series. 



belonging to the class commonly called British.^ There 
is only one way of dating an earthwork, and that is by 
trenching and excavating it, and examining the objects 
thus brought to light. This lesson, together with the 
proper method of carrying out such an examination, is 
one of the debts which the science of prehistoric archce- 
ology owes to the late General Pitt-Rivers. Any person 
who visits the magnificent collections which he has left 
behind him at Farnham, and there studies the series of 
models descriptive of the excavations which he carried 
out, will readily understand that the process of examining 
an earthwork thoroughly is a somewhat lengthy and ex- 
pensive one, and will not be surprised to find that so far 
it has only been applied to a few examples. It will be a 
long time before any large number of earthworks can be 
examined in this careful manner, and it must, consequently, 
be a long time before any accurate classification of such 
objects can be undertaken. Thanks, however, in large 
measure to the labours of Mr. Chalkley Gould and a 
committee of which he is chairman, steps are now being 
taken to make some sort of a division and census of earth- 
works in this country. The classification which he has 
adopted roughly divides the objects under consideration 
into those which are probably pre-Roman, those which 
may be Roman, and those which are almost certainly 
post-Roman. Actually the classification is by shape, 
but roughly it works out somewhat in this manner. To 
the last group, which may be at once disposed of, belong 
the moated mounds and mounds with base-courts, formerly 
supposed to be the buhrs of the Saxon period, but now 
thought, with greater probability, to be of Norman con- 
struction. These form a quite distinct class, and cannot 
be confused with the pre-Roman earthworks by any person 
who has examined an example of each. The same may 

^ Excavations, vol. iv. 


be said of the moated farmstead enclosures, many of 
which are clearly mediceval, though some may be of 
earlier date. There are various other objects, how- 
ever, which more closely resemble the earthworks with 
which we are concerned in this chapter, and of which 
some mention must be made. The true Roman camp 
seems usually to have been rectangular, and to have 
possessed four entrances, one on each side, which en- 
trances were not, as a rule, supplied with the elaborate 
outworks met with in many of the more important 
earlier fortresses. When we come across a construction 
of this kind we may at least strongly suspect that it 
is not of pre-Roman date. Then there are circular en- 
closures with ditch and mound, but with the former 
inside the latter, of which examples exist at Blois Hall 
and Thornborough in Yorkshire. These remind us of 
the arrangement already noted at Avebury, and are 
perhaps more probably religious in their character than 
military. The Cornish " rounds," which may have been 
enclosures for the purpose of games, form a separate class, 
and so also, of course, do the Roman amphitheatres, of 
which a few exist in this country. Then, especially in 
the northern parts of the country, where earthworks of 
all kinds are peppered so thickly over the hills, we have 
to distinguish from the earthworks in which we are now 
interested others which, though they have been set down 
by the older antiquaries as belonging to this class, may 
well be the tun-garths of early settlers, or pele-garths or 
mediaeval enclosures, or even the villages of the sixteenth 
century during the period of the Scottish raids. Finally 
we have to distinguish between the true camp and the 
fortified town or oppidum, often a difficult, even an im- 
possible task. In the case of a village like that at Woodcuts, 
fully described by Pitt-Rivers, or like that at Chalbury, 
near Weymouth, though there are embankments and 


ditches, yet they are not of a pronounced character, and 
are evidently so subsidiary to the pit-dwellings which 
they surround that we may fairly call such a collection 
of earthworks a village. But let us take, on the other 
hand, the case of such a fortress as Worlebury, near 
Weston-super-Mare. Here there is no question as to the 
strength of the fortifications, which are powerful enough 
to place it in the first rank of fortresses. Yet, on the 
other hand, within the enclosure are about one hundred 
pits, small certainly as places of habitation, perhaps only 
the cellars or storehouses of wigwams erected above them, 
but still giving evidence that this earthwork was a regular 
place of habitation. The same might be said about other 
earthworks which have been carefully examined, Winkle- 
bury, for example. These we must certainly speak of as 
fortified towns, or oppida, because they contain places of 
habitation. It is very dangerous to lay down laws about 
matters which have been so imperfectly investigated at 
present, but perhaps one may venture the surmise that 
there were three classes of earthworks more or less over- 
lapping one another. There was the strongly fortified 
hill-camp, intended as a place of resort in an emergency, 
but not as a place of habitation. It was a place to which 
the inhabitants of the valleys betook themselves with their 
families and their herds when attacked by enemies, but a 
place reserved for such occasions, and, perhaps on account 
of its bleakness, or of its want of water, unsuitable, and 
unintended for any protracted occupation. Then there was 
the village, surrounded by low banks and ditches, of little 
use for purposes of defence, but subserving other ends, 
perhaps as cattle-folds, or means of drainage. And 
finally there was the third class where, because the local 
climate, the water supply, and the general topographical 
conditions were all favourable, the town was also a camp, 
and served the purposes both of a habitation and a fortress. 


The second class does not come under consideration here, 
but is reserved for the next chapter. Here we are chiefly 
concerned with the defensive earthwork, the object com- 
monly called in this country a "camp," whether with, or 
without, enclosed hut-circles, and with that portion of this 
subject which relates to earthworks of the pre-Roman 
period, the so-called British camps. As a matter of fact, 
this title ought to be dropped as misleading, and that of 
pre-Roman earthworks adopted, since it commits us to less 
than the other. Certainly many of these works are of the 
bronze period, but there can be little doubt that in this 
country, as certainly in France, some of them were 
originally constructed in the Neolithic age. Here again 
the impossibility of deciding without excavation must be 
insisted upon, and at the risk of being tedious a further 
example may be cited, in illustration of the unexpected 
results which may follow a proper investigation. "Cesar's 
Camp," near Folkestone, which the country people, in the 
time of Lambarde, "ascribed to King Ethelbert, the first 
godly king of this shyre," which Wright considered to be 
the site of a Roman Pharos, and which has been believed 
by many to have owed its construction to that race, whether 
the Pharos theory was right or not, turns out on examina- 
tion to have been almost certainly a construction of the 
Norman period. ^ Castle Neroche, in part at least, belongs 
to the same category.^ Lastly, mention must not be omitted 
of the fact that many of these fortresses have been used by 
different races, and altered from time to time to suit the 
ideas of their several occupants. Old Sarum, for ex- 
ample, which was probably pre-Roman in its inception, 
was certainly afterwards a Roman fortress, a Saxon burh, 
a Norman stronghold, and a Mediaeval city. To take 
another example where the successive occupations have 
been fewer: on Hod Hill, in Dorsetshire, there is a large 

1 Arch(eologia, xlvii. 429. 

^ Som. Arch, and N. H. Soc, S. 3, vol. ix. ; and AUcroft, p. 86. 



pre-Roman camp, which was afterwards occupied by the 
Romans themselves. Probably they found the enclosure 
too large for the number of troops occupying the place ; 
at any rate they cut off a small corner at the point best 
designed to watch over the Vale of White Hart, and used 
it as their place of occupation. The alterations have not 
always been the same, but the history of this earthwork is 
that of many others throughout the country. Others have 
been occupied at still later dates. According to tradition, 
the almost certainly pre-Roman earthworks on Woodbury 
Hill, in Worcestershire, were occupied by Owen Glendower 
and his French allies under Montmorency, and here they 
were encountered by Henry IV. and his son. Hambledon 
Hill, close to Hod Hill, was, during the Civil War, 
occupied by nearly 2,000 "Clubmen," under the leader- 
ship of Mr. Bravel, Rector of Compton. They were 
driven from this fortress by Cromwell and Desborough 
on August 4th, 1645. Perhaps, even yet, these earthen 
fortresses have not seen the last of actual use in warfare. 

Having thus cleared the ground, we may proceed to 
turn our attention to the task of classifying and describing 
the earthworks with which we are now concerned, those, 
namely, which there is some reason for thinking may be 
pre-Roman, or, perhaps it may be better put, which there 
is no good ground for believing not to be pre-Roman. 

Such earthworks may be provisionally arranged under 
three headings— Promontory, Hill, and Plateau forts — 
and each of these must now receive consideration. 

Promontory forts. — These strongholds (Fig. 73) may 
be defined as fortified places which, being already strong 
in their natural defences on one or more sides, have only 
been furnished with embankments in a portion of their 
circuit. The name of promontory forts has been given 
to this class by Westropp,^ who points out that the type 

1 "The Ancient Forts of Ireland," Trans. R. I. A., xxxi. Also 
separately published. 


occurs in Greece and elsewhere round the Mediterranean, 
and is found in Dalmatia, at Riigen in the Baltic, in 
Switzerland, France, and the British Isles. There is no 
reason to suppose that there is any relation of derivation 
between the forts in these different localities, since the 
plan is one which might readily occur to any person, 
given suitable topographical conditions. The term used 
is a convenient one, as it enables us to group together, 
not merely the so-called "cliff-castles," which are pro- 
tected on one or more sides by the sea, but also those 
inland examples which occur upon spurs of hills. So 
that in this class w^e have two obvious subdivisions, coast 
and inland. 

(i.) Coast examples. — These fortresses have been con- 
structed on projecting headlands by the simple process 
of cutting off the approach from the land by one or more 
lines of embankment. Along the whole coast of Corn- 
wall, Borlase'^ states that there is scarcely a high piece of 
cliff or promontory which does not bear on its rough 
crest some landmark of the Prehistoric time. Many of 
these are cliff castles. One of the best of these is on 
Trevalgue Head. Here a narrow passage cuts off a 
small island from a promontory on the mainland. The 
first line of defence is on the mainland itself, and con- 
sists of a ditch and rampart, the latter averaging about 
8 feet in height. Beyond this, at the narrow extremity of 
the promontory, are the following defences : (i.) a ditch 
8 feet deep and 12 feet wide ; (ii.) a rampart 20 feet broad 
and ID feet high ; (iii.) a second ditch also 12 feet wide ; 
(iv.) a second rampart 20 feet high and 30 feet wide ; (v.) 
a third ditch 10 feet wide, hewn out of the solid rock; 
and (vi.) of a third rampart 10 feet high. The narrow 
piece of land on which these are constructed averages 

1 ArchcEologia, xliv. 422. 


from 80 to 100 feet in breadth. On the sea side of these 
defences is a chasm 25 feet wide and 55 feet deep. At 
full tide this is entered by the sea, which converts the 
fortress itself into an island. On the other side of the 
chasm and on the island itself is a further rampart 20 feet 
high by 30 feet thick. Still further across the island is 
the final piece of defence, cutting off what we may call 
the citadel, in the shape of a rampart 12 feet high on its 
outer side. Many rude chippings of flint have been 
found in this embankment, perhaps a clue to its date. 
From this castle no less than three others of similar type, 
Trevarrian, Bedruthan, and Park Head, may be seen, so 
thickly are these fortifications scattered along the Cornish 
coast. Similar castles are found on the West Coast of 
Ireland and in France. A good example in the latter 
country is that at Castel-Meur, Cleden, Finistere.^ In 
this case the base of the promontory is defended by three 
ramparts and ditches. Within the enclosure were ninety- 
five rectangular habitations, sunk in the earth and lined 
internally with w^alls of dry stone. Early iron imple- 
ments were found in them. As to the age of the Cornish 
and Irish cliff-castles it is impossible to speak. Nor is it 
easy to say whether they were the work of the natives or 
of invaders making a temporary stay in the country. 
The fact that in some places these forts occur on harbour- 
less points, and that they resemble so closely other forts 
inland, would lead one to conclude that, in some cases at 
least, they may well have been native fastnesses and not 
merely temporary camps thrown up by sea-borne in- 
vaders. One of the largest fortresses of this kind is that 
formed by Flamborough Head, where it is cut off from 
the mainland by the great entrenchment two and three- 
quarter miles in length, which is called the Dane's Dyke. 

^ L' Anthropologie, i. 401. For a further note on French camps, see the 
same journal, xiii. 84. 



The entrenchment is double, and is provided with pro- 
jections, or breastworks, at certain points. Here, again, 
we have no certain knowledge of the date of the work. 
The entrenchment is called the Dane's Dyke; the portion 
of the head cut off by it is called Little Denmark ; and 
General Pitt-Rivers thought that this line of fortification, 
and others to the west of it, were successive constructions 
of invaders who had arrived by sea and fortified them- 
selves, from time to time, in the process of driving 
further inland the native tribes. Canon Greenwell ex- 
presses some doubt of this, and the point must be 
regarded as at present unsettled. 

(ii.) Inland examples. — The inland promontory fort is 
exactly on the same lines as its seaside brother, save that 
it relies for the defence 
of one or more of its 
sides on the steepness 
of the escarpment of a 
hill or on a precipice. 
Where the unembanked 
side or sides were not * 
absolutely precipitous, ^ 
it is probable that they*" 
were defended by a pali- 
sade of wood, all trace 
of which has, of course, 
long disappeared. Fig. 
73 gives an example of 
this kind of fortification 
as exemplified in the 
great camp on Bredon 
Hill, Gloucestershire. 
On two sides, where ^^^ ^3^ camp • 

the escarpment of the Biedon HiU, Gloucestershire 


hill is steep though not precipitous, there are no signs 
of any entrenchments. This projecting nose of ground 
is defended on the remaining side by an angular pair 
of entrenchments, separated from one another by a con- 
siderable distance and perhaps of different dates. Within 
the inner line is a singular mass of stone, "The Bam- 
bury Stone," concerning which many theories have been 
spun. It is simply a huge block of the local oolite, but 
whether the hollow in which it lies, by the excavation 
of which the block has become visible, is natural or arti- 
ficial is uncertain. In the inner rampart of this camp 
have been found Roman pottery and coins, sufficient 
evidence, it seems, to permit us to believe that it was 
occupied for a time by that people, who may have con- 
structed this line of defence. Probably the outer rampart 
at least is of earlier date. A few worked flints have been 
found on the hill in the neighbourhood of the camp, but 
apart from the objects mentioned there is singularly little 
to help us to assign to it a date.^ Mr. Westropp states 
that the promontory forts on the spurs of inland hills in 
this country are especially abundant in Yorkshire, along 
the Esk Valley from Guisborough to Whitby. Eight or 
nine of these spurs are fortified, sometimes with a single 
rampart of earth, sometimes with a core of loose stones, 
more rarely with a facing of dry masonry of large blocks; 
in a few cases several fosses and mounds occur. The fort 
on the third spur from the west has a double earthwork 
with a ditch, and farther back three earthworks and two 
fosses. In the rear of these is a ring-fort ; still further 
back a single mound crossing the ridge. Then a mound 
across two-thirds of the ridge from the west, and another 
overlapping it from the east, running down the eastern 
slope to a bog. These forts have been found to contain 
articles of bronze, but the tumuli which are mixed up 
with them seem to have mainly exhibited objects of stone. 

' See p. 234. 


One cannot help being struck with the small size of some 
of these inland promontory forts, and wondering what 
their purpose can have been. On the promontory of 
Stinchcombe Hill, above Dursley, in Gloucester, for 
example, there is a very small portion cut off by three 
lines of entrenchment. Near by, but not included in the 
ramparts, is a row of pit-dwellings. The portion of the 
hill which is cut off is so small that it can hardly have 
been of any use as a place of refuge for the inhabitants 
of these pits. Possibly some of these small forts may 
have been signalling stations. 

Hill -forts. — Fortresses whose lines are determined by 
the shape of the summit of the hill on which they are 
placed. These include some of the most characteristic 
of the objects commonly spoken of as British camps. 
They have been very fully treated by Pitt-Rivers,^ whose 
military training rendered him a peculiarly valuable 
witness on such subjects. He sums up the special 
characters of this particular group of camps under the 
following heads: (i.) The entrenchments occupy the whole 
summits of the eminences on which they stand, (ii.) Con- 
siderations of the supply of water and fuel are invariably 
sacrificed to the occupation of the strongest features of the 
country. He has never come across an earthwork with a 
well in it. Here one may pause to note the puzzling fact 
that these hill-forts seem in almost all cases to have been 
singularly badly off for a water supply. Some have sup- 
posed that the inhabitants brought up water from some 
neighbouring source, though it has never been explained 
how this could have been done if the fortress was at all 
closely invested. Others think that there may have been 
wells which have now been filled up. Or again, it has 
been suggested, and this from what we know of the 
physical conditions of the country is not improbable, 

1 "Hill-Forts of Sussex," Archceologia, xlii. 27. 


that the springs may then have been much higher than 
they now are. But there are cases where any supply of 
this kind seems to have been always impossible. Perhaps 
some use may have been made of catchment basins and 
dew-ponds,^or perhaps the absence points to the fact that 
the earthern forts were not intended for prolonged occupa- 


■ S % j^ ^ -=:^ ^£;' ^ ~S iJ? 

'-^0, -::^ ^^ g f /I _. 

-ffe*?-^ ifflW» s m- -M^ ¥'<t(i.- ^ 


FIG. 74. 



tion, but merely for temporary protection in case of a 
sudden raid, (iii.) The strength of the ramparts cor- 
responds inversely with the natural strength of the 
position, (iv.) The ditch, which was generally on the 
outside of the rampart, has been noticed occasionally on 
the interior. This is a more common arrangement, how- 
ever, in those earthworks which seem to have been con- 

^ The question of dew-ponds has lately attracted much attention, Messrs. 
A. J. and G. Hubbard having published a book upon it called Neolithic Dew 
Ponds and Cattle Ways. Very full consideration has been devoted to the 
subject b\' Allcroft, Earthwork of England, chap, vii., and Johnson, Folk 
Memory, chap. xiv. 



structed for religious or spectacular purposes, (v.) Out- 
works were thrown up on commanding sites within two 
or three hundred yards of the main work, (vi.) The 
ramparts at the gateways were increased in height, and 
sometimes thrown backwards so as to form a re-entrant 
angle, and thus obtain a cross-fire upon the causeway 
over the ditch. The extreme complexity of the arrange- 
ment of the earthworks at and near the places of entrance 



Herefordshire Beacon, Malvern 

is, it may be pointed out, one of the important charac- 
teristics of this and the next class of forts. No better 
example could be desired than the entrances to Maiden 
Castle, near Dorchester, in Dorset, shown in Figs. 74 
and 75. The extraordinary complexity of the banks 
may be likened to the fingers of two hands, interlocking 
with one another. Another form of breastwork, defending 
the entrance, will be noticed in the plan of Yarnbury, in 
Fig. 78. In the case of the Sussex forts, Pitt-Rivers 
points out that circular erections, with intervals between 
them, have been placed in the neighbourhood of the 


entrance for the purpose of guarding it. In the case of 
the special group, with which he was dealing, the in- 
habitants of the camps were lodged in pit-dwellings, and 
the interior of the ramparts was found to be strewed with 
flint flakes of artificial manufacture. As an example of 
this kind of fortress, the great camp on the Herefordshire 
Beacon,! one of the Malvern Hills, of which a view is 
given in Fig. 76 and a plan in Fig. 77 may be cited. Here 
the outer earthworks include a large portion of the hill, 
though the central portion, or citadel, is very small in 

^'^jimiiiim rfjc '' ■ • \1i 

Herefordshire Beacon, Malvern 

comparison with the extent of the outer fortifications. 
Objects belonging to the bronze period have been found 
in the neighbourhood of this camp, but its exact date is 
as yet unsettled. Though the term earthworks has been 
frequently used in connection with the class of object now 
under consideration, it must not, therefore, be supposed 
that fortresses with rude stone walls are on that account 
excluded. A place like Worlebury, whose ramparts are 
mainly of stone, diff"ers in no essential respect from one 

^ It is now thought that this fortress, though in its outer works probably 
orignnally of prehistoric construction, was re-worked by the Normans, who 
seem clearly to have constructed the central citadel. Excavations have given 
negative results. (See Allcroft, 121 and 415.) 



like Malvern, where earth has been the material employed 
for the embankments. The builders of these fortresses 
used the materials that came most easily to hand, and 
when we talk about earthworks we must remember that 
the term is not, in all cases, strictly accurate. 

Plateau forts. — This class of fortifications differs chiefly 
from the last in that the embankments by which it is sur- 
rounded are not adapted to the outlines of the top of a 
hill. The ground on which they are placed is high, but 


the area immediately around may be almost or quite flat. 
Take the case of Yarnbury, of which a plan is given in 
Fig. 78. This camp occupies, it is true, an elevated 
position on Salisbury Plain. To reach it one has to ascend 
considerably, but when one arrives in its neighbourhood 
there is a long stretch of almost flat ground surrounding 
the earthwork itself. In fact, it lies on a plateau, and has 


thus no natural defences, such as belong to both the classes 
of fortresses which we have so far been considering. It 
must, therefore, depend upon the height of its banks and 
the depth of its ditches, together with the intricacy of its 
entrances, for the protection denied to it by nature. Mr. 
Gould is inclined to think that earthworks of this class are 
perhaps later in date than the other varieties, but as has 
been already pointed out, there is only one unfailing test 
of period, and that has not been applied as yet to any forts 
of this kind. 

Dykes. — From the group of objects now to be considered 
must first be excluded those lines of entrenchment which, 
though called dykes, were constructed, like the "Dane's 
Dyke " on Flamborough Head, for the purpose of con- 
verting a promontory into a fortress or a camp. Such 
dykes are somewhat different in purpose, if identical in 
construction, from those now to be considered, and they 
have already been dealt with in an earlier portion of this 
chapter. The more or less lengthy lines of entrenchment, 
with which we are now concerned, are met with in many 
parts of the country. In certain districts they exist in 
great numbers, Warne, for example, enumerating no less 
than twenty-five in Dorsetshire, in his list of the antiquities 
of that county. Some, at least, of these seem to have been 
utilised as tribal boundaries, even if they were not originally 
constructed for that purpose. McKenny Hughes,^ dealing 
with Offa's Dyke, one of the most important of these works, 
at one period the boundary between the Briton and the 
Saxon, inclines to the view that it is really made up of a 
number of works, possibly of the Roman period, which 
were subsequently united together to form a tribal boun- 
dary. This dyke, near to, and parallel with, which is another 
known as Watt's Dyke, runs in an approximately straight 
line. As the present boundary between England and 

' Archceulogia, lii. 465. 


Wales is tortuous, the dyke is sometimes in one country, 
sometimes in the other. It can be well studied as it crosses 
Shropshire on the hills in the district of Clun. A still 
greater dyke is the Wans Dyke, in the south-west of 
England, which possesses a total length of eighty miles. 
Commencing on the banks of the Severn, it passes through 
part of Somerset, crosses the Avon, first at Warleigh, near 
Bathford, and afterwards at Benacre, near Melksham. It 
passes through Spye Park, and across the Wiltshire 
Downs by Shepherd's Shore, an excellent place to study 
it. Thence it makes its way towards Inkpen, in Berks. 
According to Stukeley and Guest, ^ this dyke was one of 
four lines of defence successively constructed by the 
Belgae in their northward advance, the other lines being 
Combe-Bank, Bokerley Dyke, and a dyke north of Old 
Sarum. This view has, however, been upset by the in- 
vestigations made by Pitt-Rivers.^ He shows that the 
Wans Dyke, contrary to what was once believed, is a 
work of Roman or post-Roman date, though he does 
not decide whether it is Romano-British or Saxon. The 
Bokerley Dyke in Wilts is about four miles in length, 
and belongs to the same period as the Wans Dyke. 
Its extremities, like those of some other dykes yet to be 
mentioned, seem to end ''in the air," that is, without 
abutting upon any natural object of support, such as a 
river or a lake. In considering this and many other 
problems in connection with the early occupation of this 
country, one cannot be too careful to keep in mind the 
differences between our present physical geography and 
that of the earlier period. All that we know points to the 
fact that there were then far greater and more numerous 
forests than now. The greater part of Warwickshire, for 
example, was covered with the forest of Arden, a fact 
which explains the dearth of prehistoric objects in that 
county, Denbighshire was covered with forest up to a 

^ Origines Celticae, ii. 201. ^ Excavatiotis, vol. iii. 


comparatively recent period. The great forest of An- 
derida in the south extended in a belt for many miles. 
Swamps must have been much more common, and 
marshy places and fens, for the climate was wetter, and 
the streams must have been much clogged by pieces of 
wood and the dams of beavers. Forests, such as then 
existed, almost impenetrable, and the haunt of savage 
wild beasts, and swamps must have offered greater 
obstacles to the advance of troops than mountains, rivers, 
or even narrow seas. In fact, we know that it was the 
forest of Anderida which, for so long a time, cut off the 
inhabitants of Sussex from attack on any side but that of 
the sea. In the case of the Bokerley Dyke, Pitt-Rivers 
has shown that it extended across an open place between 
two forests, so that its ends were by no means without 
support. In the eastern counties there are several im- 
portant dykes lying across the course of the Icknield 
Way. Of these the Roman Way, shown by Hughes^^ to 
be really a dyke and not a road, the Fleam Dyke and the 
Devil's Ditch are right across the Way, whilst the Black 
Ditches, farther east, cross what may have been a bye- 
road from it. The Heydon and Pampisford dykes are 
short and weak, and the fen and forest in their vicinity 
were both weak, so that in a dry summer these dykes might 
have been outflanked. The other dykes in the district 
could not have been outflanked because of the forest and 
depth of the fen. There were two or three miles of the 
latter at Balsham, and probably forty at the Devil's Dyke. 
At the forest end were the villages of Balsham and Wood 
Ditton (Ditch Town) respectively. Each of these is a 
mile or so ofl^, and is situated in the forest ; perhaps an 
abattis connected the dyke with the village. At the 
other ends were also the villages of Fen Ditton (Ditch 
Town) and Reach respectively. The main street of each 
of these was formed by the fosse of the dyke, and at the 

^ Camb, Review, May 6th, 18815. 



other side of each was the fen. The Devil's Dyke is much 
the loftiest of all these at present, being still 34 feet in 
height in places. Ridgeway^ has shown that it was prob- 
ably in the neigh- 

bourhood of these 
dykes, and most like- 
ly near the Fleam 
or the Devil's Ditch, 
that the Romans, 
under P. Ostorius 
Scapula, defeated the 
Iceni, as related by 
Tacitus.'- The Devil's 
Ditch is about eight 
miles long. The bank 
is 18 feet above the 
level of the country, 
30 feet above the bot- 
tom of the ditch, and 
12 feet in width at the 
top, whilst the ditch 
itself is 20 feet wide. 
Now all these dykes 
seem to end "in the air," like the Bokerley Dyke, but, 
like it, this idea is dispelled when the circumstances of 
the time at which they were constructed are considered. 
If the plan annexed be examined (Fig. 79), it will be 
noticed that a great deal of the land now inhabited was at 
the period in question either fen or forest, and the dykes 
extend between these two. The Roman Way does not 
quite touch the fen, though it starts from the forest. But 
there are two small subsidiary dykes connected with it, 
one at Cherry Hinton, the other at Fen Ditton, which, in 
some way or another, no doubt made up the deficiency. 
The Fleam Dyke and the Devil's Ditch both abut upon 

' Proc, Camb. Ant. Soc, xxxiii. - Attnaies, xii. 31. 



one or other of these supports, and the Black Ditches run 
between the River Lark and the forest. 

If Ridgeway is right in his view, these dykes are pre- 
Roman, and of an earlier period than the western dykes 
previously mentioned. In examining ditches of this kind 
it must not be forgotten that there are many lines of en- 
trenchment in the country which are not prehistoric, or even 
belonging to an early period of history, but are mediaeval, 
or, it may be, post-mediaeval. Thus there is a ditch which 
runs along the summit of the Malvern Hills from end to 
end, dividing Herefordshire from Worcestershire, which 
is called the "Shire Ditch," or the "Red Earl's Ditch." 
There seems little doubt that this was cut by Gilbert de 
Clare, Earl of Gloucester, to separate his own forest of 
Malvern, which he had as dowry with his wife, the daughter 
of Edward I., from the possessions of the Bishop of Here- 
ford. Other lines of entrenchment may perhaps be referred 
to the period of the Civil War. But much doubt must 
rest upon all dykes until their date has been decided by 
the use of the pick and shovel. 


The following list is quite of a tentative character. It has been 
compiled from County Handbooks, archaeological surveys, the 
Ordnance Map, and other sources, and I have to express my 
grateful acknowledgments to Mr. Chalkley Gould, who has looked 
through it and given me many suggestions. At the same time I 
am fully aware that it must contain many errors of omission and 
of commission. I hope that it includes all the most important ex- 
amples in the country, but I fear that it may also include some 
examples which are not pre-Roman, and perhaps even others 
which havedisappeared altogether. In spite of this! have thought 
it well to publish the list. It may at least serve as a ground- 
work for a more complete and accurate attempt in the future, and 
a complete list of earthworks is a thing very much to be desired. 
Where the word (Ro. ?) is added, it is doubtful whether the earth- 
work is one altered or originally constructed by the Romans. 


Bedfordshire — 

Big-gleswade, near. Old Warden. 

"Caesar's Camp," near Sandy. Oval. 

"Maiden Bower," near Dunstable. Circular. 

" Wanlud's Bank," near Leagrave. Many gold British 

coins found near. 
Berkshire — 

Abing-don, near. "Poor Ned." An irregular enclosure. 

Flint chips. 
"Alfred's Castle." W. side of Ashdown Park. Circ. 

2 entrances. 
Aston Upthorpe, W. of. Oval. {? Danish.) 
Badbury Hill, i J N. of Coleshill. Circ. 
" Caesar's Camp," East Hampstead. Shaped like oak-leaf. 
"Chirbury." li S. of Hinton Waldrish. Oval. 
" Grimsbury Castle." In Grimsbury Wood, i| N. of 

Cold Ash. Irreg. i ent. 
Lambourne, near Ashbury. 
Little Wittenham, ^ S. of. Oval. 

Lowbury Hill. 2 S. of Blewbury. Square with tumulus. 
Maidenhead Thicket. Quadrilateral. 
Newbury, near. Bussock. 
Newbury, near. Borough Hill. 
Newbury, near. Overborough. 
" Perborough Castle." i S. of Compton. 
"Sigsbury." i S. of Letcombe Regis. Circ. i ent. 
*" Uffington Castle." f S. of Woolstone. S. of " White 

Horse." Irreg. i ent. 
"Wallbury." i W. of Wood Hay. [1906.) 

Wallingford, Old. Pre-Roman {A^. Brit. Arch. Ass., June, 
Buckinghamshire — 

*Bulstrode Park. Irreg. 2 ent. 
Chesham, 2 J N.E. of. Circ. 
" Cholesbury." Oval. Flint flakes abundant. 
" Danesborough," near Bow Brickhill. 
*" Desborough Castle." E. of West Wycombe. Oval. 
Great Missenden. Quadrilat. (? Roman.) 
Harlington, h S. of. Circ. 
Keep Hill, near Wycombe. 
Lee, I N.E. of. 

Buckinghamshire (coufd.) — 

West Wycombe. Circ. 
Whelpley Hill, I E. of. 

Pulpit Hill, near Great Kim- 
Shenley Church End. [ble. 

Cambridgeshire — 

"Arbury." i N. of Cambridge. 

" Belsars Hill Camp." i;^ N. of Rampton. Circ. 

" Vandlebury." Entrenchment on Gogmagog' Hills. 

War Ditches. Pre-Roman and later. (Hughes, Proc. 
Cainbs. Ayitiq. Soc, xliv. p. 452.) 

Wimblington, ij E. of. (Possibly Roman.) 
Cheshire — 

" Bucton Castle," near Staleybridge. 

"Camp Hill," near Whitmore Station. 

Helsly Hill, near Frodsham. 

" Kelsborough Castle," near Kelsall. 

'• Maiden Castle." Bickerton Hill. 

Oakmere. Delamere. 

Cornwall. Earthworks and cliff-castles very numerous in this 
county. The following is a selection only. 

" Blackaden Rings," near Menheniot. 

"Black Head, The." St. Austell. Cliff-castle. 

Bodmin, near Tregoar. (Roman coins found.) 

Braddock. Entrenchments in Largin Wood. 

"Bury, The." 1 W. of Week St. Mary. Oval. (? Roman.) 

Caddan Point. Cliff-castle. 

" Cadsonbury." i| S.W. of Callington. Oval. 2 ent. 

"Caer Bran." | S.W. of Sancreed. 

" Caer Dane." J E. of Perranzabuloe. 

" Castel-an-Dinas," near Penzance. (Much destroyed. 
Rogers Tower (modern) in it.) Three stone walls and 
an earthen vallum, remains of huts and a well. 

"Castel-an-Dinas." 2 S.E. of St.Columb Forth. (Contains 
two tumuli; traditionally hunting-lodge of King Arthur.) 

"Castle Canyke." i W. of Fletcher's Bridge. Circ. 

" Castle Dour," near Fowey. 

Castle Downs, on. Circ. 

"Castle Gotha," near Phoebe's Point, St. Austell. 

Cheesewring, near the. 
*Chun Castle. Rough stonework. (Double stone ring 
contains remains of stone huts and a well.) 



Cornwall {coiifd.) — 
"Crellas, The. 


Delabole Station, | S.E. of. 
" Demeliock Castle." 2\ \l. of Port Isaac. 
Dodman, The. Cliff-castle. 

"Ding-erein Castle," or "Geraint's Castle." Gerrans Bay. 
"Dunmeer Castle," near Dunmeer Bridge. Irreg. Oval. 
Eg-loskerry, i W. of. 
Germoe. i N.E. of. Two camps. 
"Giant's Castle." St. Mary's Island, Scilly. 
of. Golden Farm. Irreg. 
of. On the St. Austell road. 
W. of. On the Truro road. 
N. of. Near left bank of Fal. Quadrilat. 
"Great Dinas," near Manaccan. 
Gurnard's Head. Slight remains of entrenchment. Rocks 

form inner citadel. 
Harnack, near Penzance. "Round Castle." 
" Kilbury Rounds," near St. Mabyn. [hood. 

Kilkhampton. Five camps in the immediate neighbour- 

Goonhilly Downs. 
Grampound, i S.E. 
Grampound, \ N.E. 
Grampound, i 
Grampound, i 

Ladock, ^ E. of. 

Ladock, i| S.E. of. 

" Lescudjack Castle," near 
Penzance. (In fact prac- 
tically part of town, and 
nearly destroyed.) 

Linkinhorne, |S.W. of. Circ. 

" Little Dinas," near Manac- 

Luxullian, ^ S. of. [can. 

Mawgan, \ E. of. 

Mevagissey, near. Turbot 

" Padderbury," near Menhe- 

Pellynt, f N.E. of. 
*Pencarrow. Circ. 
Pengold, I S.E. of. 
Pengold, I S.E. of. 
" Penhargate Castle,' 
Dunmeer Bridge. 


*" Perran Round," near Per- 

ranporth. (? Amphitheatre.) 
Port Isaac Road Station, J E. 
Poundstock, i E. of. [of. 

" Prideaux Warren," near 

St. Blazey. 
Quethiock, i N. of. 
Rame Head. Cliff-castle. 
" Redcliff Castle," near Bod- 

ruthan. [zance. 

" Resongy Round," near Pen- 
" Resugga Castle," near 

Grampound, on the left 

bank of the Fal. 
St. Columb Forth. N. of, 
St. Denis, \ N. of. 
St. Endellion, i W. of. 
St. Enoder, f of. 
St. Erth, Trencom, near. 


Cornwall {contd.) — 

St. Eval, |S.E. of. 

"St. Syth's Beacon," near Michaelstow. 

Sancreed, near Caer Bran and Bartine Hill, 

Tinta^el. Clift'-castle. 

"Trecroben Castle," near Lelant. On Trecroben Hill. 

Rampart of large stones and earth. 
Tregonan, near Helston, 
*"Treryn Dinas." Cliff-castle near Penzance with logan 
stone, three rows of entrenchments, and rocks forming 
inner citadel. 
Trevalgue Head. Cliff-castle. {ArchcBol. xliv. 422.) 
Truen, near Penzance. A "round" 125 feet in circum- 
Truro, ih E. of. [ference. 

Truro, near, i S. of Newbridge. 
" Upton Castle," near Five Lanes. Circ. rampart, with 

rectang. enclosure within. 
" Warbstowbury." ^ W. of Warbstow Cross. Circ. i ent. 
Contains a long mound called " King Arthur's Grave." 
West Looe, i N.E. of. 
Cumberland — 

Aughertree Fell, near Irebay. Three circular camps. 
*Bewcastle. Probably originally British. 
Bothel Crags, on. Camp Hill. (? Roman.) 
"Caermote. " N. of Bassenthwaite Lake, near Bewcastle. 
**'Caerthanoc." Soulby Fell. 
"Castle How." W. side of Bassenthwaite Lake. Circ. 
Crewgarth. Five-sided. Date uncertain, may be mediseval. 
Dovenby Hall, near Bridekirk. Three oval ewks. Date 
*"Dunmallet,"near UUswater. Double-ramparted hill-fort. 
Hayton Castle Hill. 
Lazonby, 2^ W. of. Circ. i ent. 
Lazonby, 2\ W. of. Circ. i ent. 
" Maiden Castle. " Burnmoor. 
Newton Regny. Oval. 
Overwater. Quadrilat. 
Ponsonby, E. of. Infell. Five-sided. Date uncertain, 

may be mediceval. 
*" Shouithwaite Castle," Shoulthwaite. 



Cumberland {contd.) — 

Snittlegarth. Quadrilat. 
Tower Tye, Naworth. Circ. 
Triermain, Watch Hill, Circ, 

Derbyshire — 

Ashbourne, 5 N. of. Parwich. 
Ro, coins found, 

Calton, near Chatsworth, 
*" Carlswark," Hathersage 

Castleton, i N.W. of. Mam 

Combe Moss. Possibly al- 
tered by Romans. 

Cronkstone Hill. Peak. 

"DoveHoles,"near Buxton. 

Fin Cop. 

Harthill Moor, Banks on. 

Hathersage Village. Circ. 

(Very probably Nor. or 

Markland Gripps. Elmton. 
Mouslow, near Glossop. 

Devonshire — 

The following is a selection from the many earthworks in 

this county. 
Ashburton. Holne Chase Castle. 
Bampford Speke, ij S, of. Oval. 
Barnstaple, \\ N.E. of. Square. 
"Beacon, The." \ N.W. of Martinhow. 
" Blackbury Castle," Southleigh. Remarkable entrance 

defences. (Allcroft, 198.) 
'* Blackdown Camp." ^ W. of Hazelwood. Oval. 
" Boringdon Camp." On N. edge of Cann Wood. 
Braunton Barrows. Near Saunton Down. 
Brayford, \\ N.W. of. Oval. 
*"Cadbury," near Exeter. Late Roman objects found 

"Castle Dyke." Ugbrooke Park. Probably first Brit. 

then Ro. 
*Clovelly Dykes. Irreg. quad. (Brit, and later Ro.) 
Coombe Raleigh, i^ N.E. of. On Dumpton Hill. Oval. 

I ent. 
*"Cranbrook Castle." 2| N.E. of Chagford. Circ. 

rampart of stones and earth. 
"Dane's Castle," near Exeter. (Perhaps Danish.) 


Devonshire {contd.) — 

" Dupley Castle." i N.E. of Newton St. Patrock. 


Dembury, \ S.W. of. Oval. 

Dolbury, near Silverton. 

Embury Beacon. 

Hawksdown Wood, In. if S.E. of Colyton. Irreg. 

Heywood Wood. \\ S. of Chulmleigh. Circ. 

High Peak, near Sidmouth. Charcoal, bones of ox, 

deer, etc. Flint implements and coarse pottery found. 
*" Hembury," near Honiton. Oval. Certainly at some 

period Roman. Ro. coins and lar found. Perhaps 

Moridunum. But probably Brit, in origin. 
*" Hembury," near Buckfastleigh. Irreg. oblong. Bronze 

celt and sling-stones found. 
*" Hembury." In N. of county, if N.E. of Payhembury. 

Oval, I ent. (Alcroft, p. 3.) 
" Henbury Castle." 2 S. of Buckland Brewer. 
" Henwell Castle," near Parracombe. 
Ideford, i| E. of. Circ. 
Kentisbury Down. 

Luppitt, near. Dumpton Great Camp. 
Malborough, \ N. of. Irreg. 

" Membury," near Axminster. Remarkable entrance de- 
Milber Down, i S.E. of Newton Abbot. 
Milton Abbot, i E. of. 
"Musbury," near Axminster. Remarkable entrance 

'Old Barrow," near Countisbury. Quad, with rounded 

Parracombe, i N. of. 
*" Prestonbury. " On Prestonbury Common. Oval. 
*"Sidbury Castle." .} W. of Sidbury. Large store of 

sling-stones found 1864. 
*' Shoulsbury." Shoulsbury Common, Challacombe. 

*' Stanborough." i S. of Hahvell. Circ. 
•' Stockland Great Camp." i^ N.E. of Colleigh. Irreg. 
Stoke Gabriel, i S.E. of. 


Devonshire {contd.) — 

Stoke Rivers, f E. of. 

Stratton, i N.E. of. 

Stratton, \\ N. ot. 

" Voley Castle." i^ N.W. of Parracombe. 

Widworthy, \ S.E. of. 

" Woodbury Camp. " i J W. of Dartmouth. Oval. 

"Woodbury Castle." \\ E. of Woodbury. Irreg". 

" Wooston Castle." 3 from Moretoii Hampstead. 

Dorsetshire — 

Abbotsbury, near. Wears Hill. 
*" Badbury Rings," near Sturminster Marshall. The 
" Mons Badonicus " of Guest. 
Banbury Hill, near Okeford Fitzpaine. 
Buckland Newton, 2 S.E. of. 

" Buzbury Rings," near Tarrant Keynston. Circ. 
"Cattistock Castle." Cattistock. (?Ro.) 
Cerne Abbas, near. Two camps. 
"Coney's Castle," near Wootton Fitzpaine. 
Cranborne Chase. Two camps in Bussey Stool Wood. 
Also the "Soldier's Ring." Pentagonal. Near Boker- 
ley Dyke. 
"Dungeon, The." i| E. of Middlemarsh. 
Dudsbury, Wimborne. 

Eggardon Hill, near Powerstock. With hut-circles. 
*" Flower's Barrow," near Lulworth. 

Gallows Hill, near Wool. 
*Handley Hill. Bronze or early Ro. (Pitt-Rivers, 

Excavations^ iv.) 
*Hambledon Hill, near Iwerne Courtney. Probably first 

Brit, then Ro. 
*Hod Hill, near Stourpaine, Brit, with small Ro. en- 
closure in N.W. corner. Hut-circles. 
" Lambert's Castle," near Marsh wood, D-shaped. 
*" Maiden Castle," near Dorchester. Perhaps the Dunium 
of Ptolemy. At first Brit. Certainly at one time Ro. 
Remarkable entrance defences. 
Minterne Magna, \ N. of. 
Morden Heath. 


Dorsetshire {contd.) — 

Nettlecombe Tout, near Milton. 

Ower Heath. 

Pillesdon Pen. Oval. 

Pimperne Down, on. 

"Poundbury," near Dorchester. Possibly Pre-Roman. 

^"Rawlsbur}'. " On Bulbarrow Hill. Irreg-. circ. Iron 
anchor and other iron and bronze objects found. 
{A rchcBol. , xlviii. 115.) 

Rings Hill, Worbarrow Bay. 
*" South Lodg-e Camp." Rushmore. Bronze. (Pitt- 
Rivers, Excavations, iv.) 

"Spettisbury Rings," or "Crawford Castle," near Spettis- 
bury, Circ. 

Shipton Beacon. Irreg. 

" Weatherbury," near Milborne Stileham. 

Woodbury Hill, near Bere Regis. Irreg. circ. 

" Woolsbarrow." On Bloxworth Heath. 

Durham — 

" Castle Hill." Bishopton. Very doubtfully prehistoric, 
certainly occupied by Roger Conyers, twelfth century. 

"Castle, The." Hamsterley, ii N.W. of. Rampart of 

Cockfield Fell. Small square earthworks, probably pre- 

" Maiden Castle," near Durham. Old Elvet. [historic. 

Essex — 

*"Ambresbury Banks." Epping Forest. Excavated. British. 
Asheldham, near Burnham. 

"Grymes Dyke," and other ramparts near Lexden. 
Loughton. Epping Forest. 
" Pitchbury Ramparts." Great Horkesley. 
Prittlewell. Smither's Farm, near Southend. 
Ring Hill. 2 from Saffron Walden. 
South Weald, Brentwood. 
" Wallbury Camp." \ W. of Little Hallingbury. 


Gloucestershire — 

" Abbey Camp, " Alveston. Oval, i ent. 
Ablington, near Bibury, i ent. 

Amberley, near Minchinhampton. Many pit-dwelling-s 

in and near. 
Batsford, near Moreton-in-Marsh. Quadril. Ro. coins 

and other antiquities found. 
Beckford. 2^ N.E. of Winchcombe. Irreg-. A spring" 

near, witli covered approach. 
"BirdHp Camp." -i N. of Birdlip Hill. Flint arrow- 
*' Blackenbury," or " Brackenbury," or " Becketsbury. " 

2 S. of Dursley. 2 ent. Many pit -dwelling's near. 

(Proc. Soc. Auf., ii. x. 325.) 
Blaise Castle, Henbury. Irreg". Many Ro. coins found 

*" Bloody Acre Camp. " Tortworth Park, Cromhall. 
" Bury Hill Camp." Mang-otsfield. Irreg. i ent. 
Caerwood, Tidenham. 
*Cam Long- Down. Many pit - dwellings near. Many 

flints found. 
"Castle Bank." Saintbury. Round barrow within. 
" Castle Tump," Stow Green, Coleford. 
Charlton Abbots. Circ. i ent. 
Cleeve Hill Camp. 

Clifton. St. Vincent's Rocks. Nearly destroyed. Prob- 
ably at one time Roman. Traditionally the British 

Caer Oder. 
Combesbury Camp. Tidenham. Circ. 
" Conderton Camp." Bredon Hill. Irreg. oval, i ent. 

(? Danish.) 
Condicote. 3 N.W. of Stow- on - the- Wold. Almost 

Coopers Hill. 2 W. of Birdlip. 
Crickley Hill, i N. of Birdlip. 
Dowdeswell. Two camps. 
Dyrham Camp, 3 S. of Chipping Sodbury. Close to 

site of Battle of Deorham. 
Elberton. Irreg. quadril. 
Eubury, Condicote. 


Gloucestershire {contd.) — 

*** Godwin Castle," or " Painswick Beacon," Painswick. 

Irreg". Ro. relics. 
*Haresfield. Brit. , with separate portion entrenched by Ro. 

Hazelwood Copse, i S.E. of Nailsworth. Many worked 
flints found near. 

Horton Camp. 3 N.E. of Chipping Sodbury. 

*' Kemerton Camp." Bredon Hill. Ro. pot. and coins 
said to have been found here. Recent excavations 
disclosed only early pottery. {Maiiy 1905, 74.) Con- 
tains the " Bambury Stone." An ancient cache of 
wheat discovered here. 

Kingsweston Camp. Henbury. 

Leckhampton. 2 S. of Cheltenham. Bronze and flint 
implements. {Archceol. xix. 171.) 

Little Dean. i| N.W. of Newnham. 

Lydney. Close to Ro. villa. Many Ro. coins. Perhaps 
originally Brit. 

Lydney. h mi. from last. Ro. coins, etc. Probably 
first Brit, then Ro. 

Meon Hill. 6 S. of Stratford -on -Avon. Irreg. 394 
iron sword-blades found here in 1824. 
*Minchinhampton. Includes nearly 600 acres. 

"Norbury. " Farmington. 

"Norbury." Colesbourn. 
^Nottingham Hill. Cleeve. Brit, and Ro. coins. 

Oldbury-on-Severn. S. of Oldbury Pill. 

Oxenton Hill. 

Prestbury. 2 from Cheltenham. Traces of stone founda- 
tions within, probably mediaeval. 

Ranbury Camp. 4 E. of Cirencester. 

Randwick. 2 N.W. of Stroud. 

" Ring Outpost, The." Cleeve Hill. 

" Salmonsbury." Bourton-on-the-Water. Rectang. Ro. 
relics and 120 iron sword-blades. These may possibly 
have been iron currency bars. {Proc. Soc.A/iL, xx. 182.) 
Perhaps originally Ro. 
*Sodbury. Rectang. Probably Ro. 

Sowdley. 2 W. of Newnham, [dwellings. 

Stinchcombe Hill. Small earthworks at end, near pit- 

" Toots, The." Oldbury-on-Severn. Many Ro. coins found. 

Towbury. Twyning. 


Gloucestershire {cojiid.) — 

Trevvsbury. 3 S.W. of Cirencester. 
*" Uleybury," near Uley-cum-Owlpen. Ro. coins and 
worked flints found. 
"Welshbury." 3 N. of Newnham. 
Wick Rocks, near Bath. 

Willersey. Remains of long barrow in camp. 
Windrush. Circ. i ent. 

(For further notes, see Witts' Archceological Handbook of 
Gloucestershire. ) 

Hampshire — 

" Balksbury," or " Folksbury," near Andover. 

Basingstoke, i N.W. of. 

"Beacon Hill Camp," near Burghclere. Hut-circles. 

" Buckland Rings.' i N. of Lymington. Irreg. cir. 

Buriton, i^ W. of. Irreg. Probably Ro. 

Bury Hill, near Andover. 

" Caesar's Camp." Aldershot. Ro. coins. 

"Caesar's Camp." Crondall. 100 Merovingian gold 
coins found near it in 1828. 

Chil worth, i S.E. of. Circ. 

Christchurch, i^ N.W. of. St. Catherine's Hill. Irreg. 
and circ. ewks. 

"Danebury." i N.E. of Nether Wallop. Circ. i ent. 

Egbury Hill. Pentagonal. 

Ellisfield. Circ. 

" Hengistbury," near Christchurch. 

"Lidbury Ring." if E. of Middleton. Probably Brit, 
then Ro. 

Lydmorton, f S. of. 

Mortimer Heath, Silchester. Square. (?Ro.) 
*01d Winchester Hill. Ro. lamp and coins. Perhaps 

originally Ro. 
*Quarley Hill, i S.W. of Quarley. Oval, i ent. 

Sherfield English, i N.E. of. 

Sherfield-upon-Loddon, | N.W. of. Oval, i ent. 


"Norbury Ring." h N.W. of Stoke Charity. Circ. 
*Sydmanton, i S.W. "of. Ladle Hill. 
*Tatchbury Mount. 2 N.E. of Tolton. Oval. 


Hampshire (con/d.) — 

Upper Clatford, ^ W. of. Bury Hill. Circ. 2 ent. 
**'Walbury." i N. of Coombe. Irreg. 
Winchester. St. Katherine's Hill. Probably Ro. 
" Winklesbury Circle." Vallum of flints. 
Wootton St. Lawrence, 

Worldbury Mount. A " White Horse " here, not ancient. 
"Tunorbury." Hayling. Circ. 

Herefordshire — 

Aconbury Camp. ^ W. of Aconbury. 1 ent. 

Ashton, near Eye in Pyon Wood. 

Aymestrey, ^ N. of. Irreg. 

Bach Camp. Kimbolton. 

Bradnor Hill Camp. Kington. 

Brandon. |S. of Leintwardine. Irreg. i ent. Probably Ro. 

"Capler Camp." i S.E. of Fownhope. In Capler Wood. 
Oval. I ent. 

Coxwall Knoll, h N. of Brampton Bryan. 

Credenhill Park Wood, In. 
*" Croft Ambrey." 4 W. of Orleton. 
*Dcerfold, near Wigmore. Circ. 

"Dinefor Camp." i S. of Billingham. Oval. (? Ro.) 

" Eaton Hill Camp." Foy. 

"Ethelbert'sCamp." f S. of Dormington. Irreg. (?Ro.) 

Fownhope Park. Cherry Hill. ^ N. of Fownhope. Oval. 
I ent. 

Garmsley. i| E. of Bockleton. Oval. 
*Herefordshire Beacon. Malvern Hills. Irreg. Probably 

in part Norman. 
*Holly Bush, or Midsummer Hill. Malvern Hills. Irreg. 

Ivington. if N.W. of Hope-under-Dinmore. Irreg. 

" Kilbury Camp," near Ledbury. Irreg. 

"King's Cellar, The," or "Sutton Walls." i N.E. of 
Moreton-on-Lugg. Said to be a Mercian Palace. 

Little Doward Camp, near Whitchurch. 

" Oldbury Camp." Much Marcle. 

Pentwyn Camp. 2 W. of Brilley. Circ. 

Pudleston, i W. of. Irreg. 

" Risbury Camps." ^ S. of Humber. Oval. 

Ruckhall Camp, near Eaton Bishop. 


Herefordshire (co?i/d.) — 

Uphampton Camp. Docklow. 

Walford, near Ross. 

"Wall Hills." I W. of Collington. Oval. Spear, 
arrowheads, pot, worked flints. 

Walterstone, h E. of. Circ. 2 ent. 

Wapley Hill, ^ S. of Combe. Irreg. i ent. 

Westingfton Camp, Grendon Bishop. 

"Vineyard, The." Haffield. 
Hertfordshire — 

"Aubreys," or "Anbury," near Redbourn. 

Beech Bottom, near Sandridge. 

" Cleigh-hangres," near Watton. 

" Ravensborough Castle." Hexton. 

" Slad, The," near Wheathamstead. [lamium. 

St. Albans. Ewks. Nearly parallel with Ro. wall of Veru- 


" Bulwark Fort, The." Earith. 
Bury, S. of. 



Amsbury, near Hunton. 
Bigbury Camp, near Canterbury. 
" Castle Rough." Milton. (? Danish.) 
Chilham. |S.E. of. Entrenchment supposed to be Brit. 
" Clubberlubber. " Swanscombe. 
Coldred. Rectang. 2 ent. (? Ro.) 
Darenth, near Green Street Green. 
Holwood, Keston. 
Ightham. Bronze Age. 
Kingston. (? Ro.) 
Maidstone, i| S. of. 
Offham, I E. of. 

Queenborough Camp. Rectang. (? Ro.) 
"Roman Codde." Kingsdowne, near Walmer. 
Westerham. Camp in Squerries Wood. 
(See Archaeological Survey and list by Flinders Petrie in 
Archccologia Caiiiiana, xiii.) 


Lancashire — 

Beadle Hill, near Burnley. 

Birkrii,rg-. (C.) 

Bleaberry Hawes. Torver. (C.) 

" Bucton Castle." Mossley. 

CasterclifF, near Colne. 

" Castle Steads," near Walmesley. 

"Dykes, The." 2| E. of Burnley. 

" Eusdon Fort," near Burnley. 

"Foula." Urswick, Holme Bank. (C.) Foundations 

of walled enclosure. 
Havvkshead Hall Park. (C.) 
Heathwaite Fell Stone Rings. (C.) 
"Mount, The." Holton, near Lancaster. Querns, etc., 

" Ringstones." Worsthorne. 
Scrow Moss Coniston. (C.) 
Stonyhurst Park. 

Torver Beck. Bannishead Moor, (C.) 
Trawden. 2 S. of. Circ. 
*Ursvvick, Great. Oval stone-walled enclosure. 
Warton Crag". 
(C. enclosures with earth and stone banks, the period 

of which is not very certain. Described by Cowper, 

Archceologia , liii. 389.) 

Leicestershire — 

Beacon Hill. Bronze celts and armlets found. 


Breedon Hill. Querns, probably of Early Iron Age, 

have been found here. 
Burrough-on-the-Hill, near Great Dalby. 
" Bury Camp," near Ratby. 

Lincolnshire — 

Billingborough, f S.E. of. Rectang. (? Ro.) 
Burnham, near Barrow Haven. (? Danish.) 
" Castle Hills." Gainsborough. Possibly Danish, prob- 
ably afterwards Norman. 


Lincolnshire {contd.) — 

*' Countess Close. " Alkborough. Rectang^. (? Ro.) 

'« Dam Close." S.W. of Willoughby. (? Ro.) 

Hallington, near. Orgarth. (? Danish.) 

Honington, \ S.E. of. Rectang. 

*' Manwarings, The," near Swineshead. (? Danish.) 

North Kyme, near Heckington. (?Ro.) 


" Round Hills," near Bassingthorpe. Clrc. 

"Three Castles." \ S.E. of Barrow Haven. Irreg. 

Said to be British, then Danish. 
"Yarborough Camp." i N.E. of Melton Ross. Rectang. 

Probably Ro. Many coins found. 

Monmouthshire — 
Bishton, near. 

Caerleon, iN.W. of. TheLodgeFarm. (?British,thenRo.) 
"Coed-y-Bunedd." \ N. of Bettws Newydd. 
" Craig-y-gaercyd," near Llancayo, N.W. of Usk. 
Kemeys Inferior, S. of. Two camps. 
Kemeys hiferior, N. of. 
Llangwm, i S. of. Oval. (? Ro.) 
Liang wm, f N. of. 
Llanhennock, i N.E. of. 
Llanishen, 2\ W. of. Irreg. 
Llantilio Crosenny, \\ S.E. of. 
Llanvihangel Crucorny, 2 N. of. 
Llanvair Discoed, i E. of. 
Newport, i^ W. of. (?Ro.) 
Portskewet, Coast near. (May be Saxon.) 
Raglan, y\ W. of. 
Risca, I N. of. Oval, i ent. 
St. Bride's, near Netherwent. 
Tintern, i S.W. of. 
*' Twyn-y-gaer." 2 N.W. of Llanvihangel Crucorny. 

Norfolk — 

"Castle Hill." Entrenchment E. of Hunworth. Prob- 
ably a Norman motte. 
Tasburgh Camp. Probably Roman, 


Northamptonshire — 


Borough Hill, Daventry. 

Cotton Camp, f E. of Little Addington. 

East Farndon. Entrenchment. 
*Hunsbury Hill. i| S.W. of Northampton. Circ. Late 
Celtic, as proved by excavation. Objects in North- 
ampton Museum. 

" Larches, The." i^- N.E. of Farthingstone. Entrench- 

" Rainsborough Camp." Newbottle. Oval. 2 ent. 
Ro. coins. 

Thenford, i N. of. Irreg. 

Northumberland — 

The earthworks in this county are extremely numerous. 

A selection of the more important is here given, and, 

on account of their number, the plan of placing named 

camps in alphabetical order has here been departed 

from, and all are classified according to the place 

nearest to them. 
Alnham, | W. of. On Castle Hill. Circ. i ent. 
Alnmouth, N. of. Irreg. quad. 
Alnwick, (i.) Near tower in Park. Oval, (ii.) Close 

by this and to S. of it. (iii.) i S. of this "Black 

Alwinton, N. of. Two camps. 
Bamburgh. (i.) i^ S.W. of, on West Hill. Irreg. 

(ii.) I S.W. of, on Crook Hill. Irreg. oval, (iii.) 2 S. 

of, on Pigdon Hill. Irreg. (iv.) On Cat Crag. 
Barrasford, near Moneylaws. 
*Beanley Moor. "The Ringses." With hut-circles. 
Belford. (i.) ^ N.W. of. " Derry Camp." Quad. 

(ii.) On Chapel Hill, (iii.) On the Kyloe Hills. 
Bellingham. (i.) 2| S. of. "Garret Holt Camp." Circ. 

(ii.) 2 S.E. of. Irreg. i ent. (iii.) 2| S.E. of. 

Rectang. (iv.) i^ N.W. of, in Riding Wood. Oval. 
Bewick Hill. if N.E. of Eglingham. *(i.) Double 

Camp, with hut-circles, (ii.) i mile from this, near 



Northumberland {coutd.) — 

Birtley, near, (i.) Birtley Shields Green, (il.) Birtley 

West Farm. (iii.) High Shields Green. (iv.) Mill 

Bolam. (i.) On Old Stale Hill, (ii.) On Huckhoe. 
Bolton, (i.) "The Guards." (ii.) On Jenny's Lantern 

Bowmont Hill, i S. of Mindrum. Irreg-. oval. 
■^Broug'hlaw, near Ing-ram. With hut-circles, 
Bucton Moor, i W. of Bucton. Two circ. camps. 
Caistron, near Hepple. 
Callaly. On Castle Hill. One rampart consists of 

squared stones set in lime. (?Brit. , then Ro.) Two 

other camps near here, (i.) High Houses, (ii.) Rabbit 

*Carry House Camp, i S. of Countess Park. Hut-circles. 
Catcleug-h Plantation. Irreg. 

Chatton, J E. of. On Chatton Law. Circ. and others. 
Chillingham. Hebburn Crags, E. of. 
Cochrane Pike, i^ S. of Ligram. Oval. 
Cornhill, near Campshill. 
Doddington, near. *(i.) Dod Law. Double Camp. 

(ii.) Venton Hill. i N. (iii.) "The Ringses." 

(iv.) Several others near here. 
Downham Village, (i.) E. of, on Camp Hill. Oval. 

(ii.) 1 N.E. of. "Moneylaws." Oval. 
East Ord, ^ N.W. of, at Canny Bank. 
Elsdon. (i.) I S.W. of. Irreg. (ii.) li S.W. of, at 

Raylees. (?Ro.) 
Flodden, near the Linthaughs. 
Gunnarton. *(i.) "Moneyhill." Mound with ramparts 

and fosses, possibly a Norman "motte. " *(ii.) One 

on each side of Gunnar Heugh, with rough stone 

walls. Hut-circles near, (iii.) i N. of Gunnarton Nick, 

"Pity Me Camp." 
*Hare Haugh Hill. li S.E. of Holystone. Oval. 2 ent. 
*Hare Hope Hill, near Humbleton, in Monday Cleugh, on 

Standrop Hill. Irreg. quadrilateral. 
"Harelaw." f S.E. of Mindrum. Circ. [i ent. 

Hartleyburn Common, near Lambley Station. Rectang. 
Hepple, behind Swindon Hill. "Soldiers Fauld." 



Northumberland {confd.)^- 

Holystone, J W. of, near Campville Farmhouse. 
Howick Burn, near mouth of, Circ. Ro. coins. 
Ilderton. (i.) On Ilderton Dod. Rectang. (ii.) Rose- 
den Edge. Octagonal. Hut-circles. 
Ingram, near, (i.) i S.E. of. On Castle Knowe. Circ. 

3 ent. (ii.) On Old Fawdon Hill, (iii.) Wether Hill. 

(iv.) Gibbs Hill, (v.) Chubden Hill, (vi.) Knock Hill. 

(vii.) Ewe Hill, (viii.) Reaveley Hill. 
Kirk Newton, near, (i.) Little Hetha. (ii.) Great Hetha. 

(iii.) Sink Side, (iv.) Fawcett Shank and others. 
*Kirk Whelpington. Several camps in neighbourhood. 
*Linhope Fame, 4 mi. from Ingram, (i.) "Greaves Ash," 

with many hut-circles, (ii.) Near this "The Chesters," 

also with hut-circles. 
*Lord-in-shaws. Many hut -circles. Near Rothbury. 

(Green well, British Barrows, 430,) 
Matfen, near. On Grindstone Laws. Circ. 
Middleton Hill, near Wallington. (? Ro.) 
Long Framlington. On Hall Hill, near Heatherwick's 

Well. Rectang. i ent. 
Norham,nearTwizell Bridge. " Haly Chesters," Quadril, 
Otterburn. (i.) i N.E. of, on Colwell Hill, Circ. i ent. 

(ii.) Fav\'don Hill. 
Plashetts, near, on Haw Hill. 
Rothbury. (i) "Old Rothbury," N.W. ot. Circ. (ii.) 

I W. of, at Westhills. Circ. Others in neighbourhood. 
*Rowting Lynn. 
Swinburn, near, (i.) On Reiver Crag, (ii.) On Oxhill. 

(iii.) On Blue Crag. 
Swine Hill, on Watling Street, near Ridsdale. Rectang. 

(? Ro.) 
Thorneyburn, near. 
*Tosson, Great. Burgh Hill Camp. 
Trewhitt. " Roberts Law." 
Unthank, near Berwick. Three Camps. 
Warden, (i.) W. of. Circ. i ent. (ii.) N.W. of, on 

High Warden. Circ. i ent. 
Weetwood Bridge, near Wooler. Stone balls and querns 



Northumberland {contd.) — 

Whalton, f N.E. of. (i.) "Dead Men's Graves." (ii.) 

Near this a second, larger. 
Woolen (i.) \ W. of. "Green Castle," or "Maiden 
Castle," or " The Kettles." Irreg. quad. Hut-circles. 
Ro. coins found, (ii.) " Cup and Saucer Gamp." S.W. 
of Humbleton Mill. Several others in the neighbour- 
*Yeavering' Bell. Hut-circles. Many flint implements 
found here. 
(Information respecting- many of these camps and other 
antiquities of the county may be found in Tomlinson's 
Coynprehensive Guide to Northuinbcrland.Y 

Nottinghamshire. — East Leake. "The Castle." 
Eg-manton, i S.W. of. (? Danish.) 
Rinshill, near. 

Oxfordshire. — Chadlington, i N.W. of. 

Chalcombe Lodge, near. [Papers^ \. 224.) 

Chastleton, | S. of. Irreg. rectang. (RoUestone's Sci. 
Chipping Norton. "The Castle Hills." Complicated 

earthworks behind the church. 
Crowell. (? Ro.) 

Dyke Hills, Dorchester. (AUcroft, p. 67.) 
Evenley, i S.W. of. 
Idbury, i S.W. of. 

"Maiden Bower," near Steeple Barton. 
Nether Worton, ^ N.E. of. Oval. 
North Leigh, i S.E. of, in Eynsham Hall Park. 
" Rainsborough Camp." | S. of Charlton. Circ. i ent. 
" Round Castle." A E. of Begbroke. 
Sarsden, f S. of. 

Shutford. f S. of Madmarston Camp. Circ. 
Swallcliffe, near Blacklands. (Ro. coins found. Perhaps 

first Brit.) 
Wigginton, i^ N. of. Tadmarton Camp. Circ. i ent. 
Wigginton, h S.W. of the last Camp. 

^ "Arthur's Round Table." Soney Riggr, near Plashetts, perhaps 
similar to those ewks mentioned in note to Yoi-kshire ewks. 


Shropshire — 

"Abdon Burf." On Brown Clec Hill. Irreg. circ. 

"Banks, The." iS. ofWem. Rectang-. (? Ro.) 

Belan Bank. ^ S. of Kinnerley. 

" Berth, The." | N. of Eyton. 

" Billings Ring." ii N.W. of Edgton. 

" Bodbury Ring." h N.W. of Church Stretton. Circ. 

Brockton, i N.W. of. Irreg. circ. 

Burrow Wood. | W. of Hopesay. Irreg. 

" Bury Ditches." 2 N.E. of Clun. 

"Bury Walls." 2 S.W. of Hodnet. (Ro. coins found.) 

"Caerbre," near Chirbury. 
*" Caer Caradoc," near Church Stretton. 
*" Caer Caradoc," near Clun. 

" Caer-Din Ring." if S.W. of Church Town. 

*' Castel Brogynton." In Brogynton Park, near Oswestry. 
*" Castel-Bryn - Amhvg." i| N. of Felindre, in Clun 
Valley. Circ. 

"Castle Ring." Slitt Hill. Irreg. 

"Castle Ring." i S. of Snailbeach. 
*Caynham, h N. of. (? Ro.) The Chastel Key of the 
thirteenth century and perhaps the Kair Key of Henry 
of Huntingdon. 

"Cefn-y-Castel." On the Breidden Hills. 

Church Town, | S.E, of. Irreg. oval. 

" Clee Burf." On Brown Clee Hill. 

Clun, near, (i.) i N.E. of. Irreg. (ii.) i^ S.W. of. 
(iii.) I S. of. (See also "Bury Ditches" and "Caer 

"Coed-y-Gaer." ij N.E. of Llansilin. 

Coxwall Camp. (Partly in Herefordshire.) 

"Ditches, The." i S. of East Hope. 

Longnor, i^ W. of. Irreg. (? Ro.) 

Minsterley, h E. of. Gallows Hill. (? Ro.) 

Moel-y-Golfa, Breidden Hills. 

Newcastle, N. of. Irreg. (? Ro.) 

Nordy Bank. ^ E. of Clee St. Margaret. Irreg. 3 ent. 

Norton Camp, near Stokesay. (? Ro.) 
*"01d Oswestry," or " Hen Dinas." ^ N. of Oswestry. 


Shropshire {contd.) — 

Pontesbury, \ S. of. Circ. 

Pontesbury, \ S.E. of. Oval, i ent. 

Pontesford Hill. Oval. 

Priestweston, i^ S.W. of. Irreg. 

Ratlinghope Hill. Irreg-. 

" Ring", The." \ S. of Pontesbury. 

•'Robury Ring." i N. of Asterton. 
*Roden, if W. of. Irreg. circ. 

Ruyton-of-the-Eleven-Towns, i| S. of. Irreg. 

Snead, \ N.E. of. Two irregular camps. 

Titterstone Glee, i W. of Cheney Longville in Warthill 
Plantation. Irreg. 
*Wrekin, The. 

Somerset. — Banwell, \ E. of. Oval. Many flint flakes have 
been found. Near it is a quadrangular enclosure con- 
taining what has been described as an agrimensorial 
cross. (Coote, Romans of Britain, p. loi.) 

Bath. Lansdowne Hill. 

Bathampton Camp, i E. of Bath. Irreg. 

"Bats Castle." f S. of Dunster. Quadril. 2 ent. (?Ro.) 

Blackers Hill, i N. of Ashwick. 

Bleadon Hill, near Hutton. 

"Borough Walls," or "Bower Walls," near Rownham 
Ferry on Avon. {^ArchceoL, xliv. 428.) 

Bourton, 2\ N. of. On Park Hill. Irreg. 

Bourton, 2\ N.W. of. Irreg. 

Brean Down. With hut-circles. 

Brent Knoll. Irreg. Ro. coins. 

" Brewers Castle," near Dulverton. 

Broomfield, f N. of. 

Burrington, \ S. of. Rectang. i ent. 

" Bury Castle," near Selworthy. 
*" Cadbury Camp." N. of Sutton Montis. Irreg. Ro. 
coins. Traditionally the Camelot of Arthurian legend. 

*' Cadbury Camp," near Tickenham. Oval. Loose stone 

"Cadbury Camp," near Yatton. 

" Caer Badon," near Claverton. 


Somerset {con id.) — 

" Castles, The." Bathealton. Ro. coins. 
**' Castle Neroche." Buckland St, Mary. Partly Norman. 

(See p. 209 and Allcroft, 86.) 
"Castle Hill." 
Charnwell, near Sigwell. 
Clatworthy. ^ N.W. of. Oval. 

"Cow Castle," on Exmoor. 
*" Danesboroug-h." Stowey. 
*"Dolebury," near Churchill. Oval, stone-walled. (See 

full account of this camp in Allcroft, chap, xx.) 
Dowsborough. 1} S. of Holford. Oval, i ent. 
Dundon Hill. Irreg. 
Dunster, | S.W. of. Circ. 
" Elvvorthy Barrows." Brendon Hill. 
*Hamdon Hill. Irregf. British ewks, of which N.E. 

portion was altered by Romans. {ArchcEol.^ xxi.; Proc. 

Soc. Ant., ii. xi. 86.) 
Henbury, near. 

"Jack's Castle," near Bruton. 
" Kenwalch Castle," near Stavordale. 
"King Alfred's Fort." \ N. of Borough Bridge. 
"Maesbury Castle." i;^ W. of Oakhill. Oval. 2 ent. 
" Maesknoll." | N. of Norton Malreward. 
Merehead Camp. 5I S.E. of Maesbury. 
''"Norton Fitzwarren. Constructed during Bronze Age, and 

much used during Romano-British period. 
Ruborough Camp. Triangular, i ent. Roman coins 

and querns, perhaps solely Roman. {Proc. Som. 

A. & N. H. Soc, S. iii.-ix. 173.) 
Sigwell. Flints, etc. (Rollestone, Sci. Papers, i. 440. 

And as Ruborough.) 
Small Down, near Evercreech. Oval. 2 ent. Contains 

three tumuli. (Ref. as Ruborough, p. 183.) 
" Solisbury Camp," near Swains wick. Irreg. The Mons 

Badonicus of Earle. 
Stantonbury Hill. \ N. of Stanton Prior. Irreg. 
Stokeleigh, in Leigh Woods, opposite CHfton. Irreg. 

{ArchcBoL, xliv. 428.) 




irregf. i ent. 

Somerset {confci.) — 

Stonesbury Camp, on Exmoor. 
Stoney Stratford, i N.E. of. Oval. 
Tedbury Camp, near Mells. Irreg. 
" Trendle Ring," near Bicknoller. Circ. 
Wadbury Camp, near Mells. 
Wiveliscombe, f E. of. Irreg. 
*" VVorlebury," near Weston-super-Mare. Late Celtic, 

contains many pits, stone-walled. 
Yarlington, W. of. 

(See Pi'oc. Som. A. & N. H. Soc, v. 38.) 
Staffordshire. — Arley Wood. Remains of ewk. 
" Berth, The," near Whitmore. (? Ro.) 
" Bury Ring." 2 S.W. of Stafford. 
" Castle Old Fort," near Over Stonnal. 
"Castle Ring." Beaudesert Old Park. 
" Knaves Castle," near Brown Hills. 
Suffolk.—" Castle Yard." I E. of Bramfield. 
Clare Camp. N. of the town. 
Fakenham Camp. 

" Warbanks," near Cockfield. Possibly British. 
Surrey. — Albury, near, On Farley Heath. (? Ro.) 

" Anstiebury," near Dorking. Circ. Flint implements 

found in and near. 
Ashstead, ih N. of. On Ashstead Common. 2 ent. 
Bisley, between, and West End, Chobham. "Danes 

Dyke " or " The War Banks." 
Byfleet, 4 E. of. 
" Caesar's Camp." Wimbledon Common. Circ. 2 ent. 

(Arc/iceo/., xxxii. 450.) Wantonly destroyed in 1875. 
"Caesar's Camp." St. George's Hill, Weybridge. 
" Cardinal's Cap," The. Caterham on the White Hill. 
" Castle Hill." Hascombe. Quadrilat. 
" Castle Hill," near Godstone. 
" Elderbury." St. Anne's Hill, near Chertsey. 
Farley Heath. Slight remains. Aubrey's " Roman 

Temple." Many early British and Roman coins found. 
Holmbury Hill, near Ockley. Rectang. 
Leatherhead, ^ N.E. of. Irreg. rectang. (Ro. tiles and 

coins found 1859.) 


Surrey {contd.) — 

Tilford, near, (i.) Hillyfield. (ii.) Long Town, (iii.) Kin- 
Warling-ham, 1^ E. of. [chill. 

Wallington. (//. Anthrop. Insi.y xxxv. 387.) 

Sussex. — Amberley, i S.E. of. 

Beltout, above Berling- Gap. (A.) 
*Brighton Race Course. White Hawk Hill. (A.) 
" Broyle, The." Near Chichester. 

"Castle, The." Newhaven. (A.) 
"Chanctonbury Ring." f W. of Wiston. (A.) 
Chichester, 4 N. of. St. Roches Hill. (A.) 
*" Cissbury." Worthing, 2\ N. of. Oval, contains many 

pits. A flint-factory. (A.) {Jl. Anthrop. Insi.,\. iS'j6; 

ArchceoL, xlv. 337 ; RoUestone, Sci. Papers^ i. 409.) 
Combe Hill. 

" Devil's Dyke Camp." | S. of Poynings. 
" Ditchling Beacon." \ S.W. of Westmeston. Irreg. 

(?Ro.) (A.) 
Edburton, \ S.E. of. Circ. 
Falmer. Two "valley-entrenchments." (See Thoms, 

Antiquary, Nov., 1907, and AUcroft, p. 146.) 
Fulking, I S. of. (? Ro.) 

" Goosehill Camp." i| W. of West Dean. Circ. 
Graff ham, i^ S.W. of. Entrenchments. 
" Harrow Hill." 2} E. of Burpham. Circ. 
Highdown. 4 S.W. of Cissbury. (A.) Bronze imple- 
ments found {Proc. Soc. A?it., ii. xviii. 386). Late Celtic. 
" Hollingbury Castle." i| N. of Brighton. (A.) Bronze 

celt, torque and armillae found. {AixhceoL^ xxix. 372, 

and xlvi. 423.) 
Kingston-by-Sea, if N. of. 
" Lingfield Mark Camp," near E. Grinstead. British 

Oppidum. {Proc. Soc. A7it., ii. xiv. 33.) 
" Mount Caburn." | N.of Biddingham. Circ. LateCeltic. 
Piecombe Street, ^ N. of. Circ. 2 ent. 
Ranscombe. W. of Mt. Caburn. (ArchceoL, xl\i. ^2^.) 
Ringmer Holt. 

Saxonbury Hill. 2 N.E. of Rotherfield. Oval. 
Seaford, near. (A.) 



I S.E. of West Dean. Circ. 

Sussex {contd.) — 

Steep Down. 


"Trundel, The." 


(For Sussex Hill Forts, see Archctologia, xlii. 27. Those 
marked (A.) above are included in this paper. See also 
chapters on South Downs in AUcroft, xviii. and xix.) 

Warwickshire — 

Ashorne, near. In Oakley 

Wood. Irreg. 

Beausale, near Wroxall. 
Brinklow. Irreg. oval. 
Brownsover. Irreg. 
"Danesbank,"onCappa Hill. 

Westmorland — 

Bampton Grange. 

Brackenber, near Appleby. 

Clifton, W. of. 

Great Asby. Several camps 
in neighbourhood. 

"Grig Hall, near Kendal." 
Also three other earth- 

"Grimes Hill," N. of Kirby 


Kirby Stephen. Two ewks. 

Laithwaite Crags. 

("Arthur's Round Table," near Penrith, appears to be a mound 
like those mentioned at the end of the Yorkshire ewks.) 

Wiltshire. — *" Barbury Castle." On Barbury Down, near 

Hackpen Hill. Oval. 2 ent. Possibly the Berranybrig 

of the Saxon Chronicle. 

" Battlesbury Camp." \\ E. of Warminster. Irreg. 

2 ent. With remarkable entrance defences, (Allcroft, 

Bradenstock-cum-Clack. [pp. 196-197.) 

*" Bratton Castle," near Edington. Below this a " White 

Horse," restored. 

Loxley, Red Hill. 
"Mount, The," near Ches- 

wick Green, Monkspath 

Nadbury Camp, on Edge Hill. 
Oldbury, near Hartshill. 
Solihull Lodge. 

Milburn, i E. of. 

Newbiggen, 2 E. of. 



Orton. Two ewks. 

Sandford, near Appleby. 

Two evi^ks. 
Stainmore. Two ewks. 
Troutbeck, near Ambleside. 

Two ewks. 
Shap, S. of. 


Wiltshire {contd.) — 

" Bury Camp." \ S. of North Wraxall. 
"Bury Hill." if"w. of Purton Stoke. Oval. 
Brixton Deverill, i^ E. of. Rectang. 2 ent. 
easterly Camp. 2 S. of Uphaven. 
"Castle Ditches." i S.E. of Tisbury. 
"Castle Rings." i N.W. of Donhead St. Mary. 
Chisbury Camp, h N. of Great Bedwin. 
"Chiselbury." 2 N.W. of Broad Chalke. 
" Chisenbury Camp." f N.E. of East Chisenbury. 
" Church End Ring." i^^ S. of Wylye. 
Clay Hill. 2 W. of Warminster. Irreg. 
" Codford Castle." h N.E. of Codford St. Mary. 
" Coniger, The." E. of Stonehenge. 
Dean Station, near. 

" East Castle." \ S. of Hanging Langford. 
*" Figsbury Ring," or " Chlorus' Camp." i S.E. of 

Winterbourne Earls. Unusual internal ditch. (See 

note on p. 252, and Allcroft, p. 574.) 
" Fosbury Camp." On Haydown Hill, near Vernham's 

Dean in Hants. 
" Groveley Castle," near Little Langford. 
" Hanging Langford Camp." if S. of Wylye. 
Kingston Deverill, i S.W. of. Rectang. 
*Knap Hill, i N.E. of Alton Priors. (See Cunnington, 

Man, 1909, 28.) 
•' Knook Castle." li W. of Chitterne St. Mary. 
" Lidbury Camp." On Littlecote Down, i S.E. of 

Chisenbury Camp. 
Martin, 2 W. of. 
*" Liddington Castle." i E. of Chisledon. Oval. 
Martinsell Hill, near Marlborough. 
"Membury." 13 E. of Aldbourne. 
Milk Hill. I N.W. of Alton Priors. 
" Oldbury Castle." | S.E. of Cherhill. 
*"01d Sarum." (British, Roman, Saxon, Norman, and 

Mediaeval city.) 
Odstock, 1 1 S. of. 
"Ogbury." E. of Durnford. 


Wiltshire {conid.) — 

"Oliver Castle." On Roundway Hill, near Devizes. 
Probably late Celtic. {Man^ 1908, 4.) 

Orcheston St. Mary, 2^ E. of. Two concentric rings. 

"Ramparts, The," near Stonehenge. Stukeley's "Ves- 
pasian's Camp." Perhaps later Ro. Outer ramparts 
seem to be of different date from inner. 

" Ringsbury Camp," near Purton. 

"Robin Hood's Bower." In Southfield Wood, i| S. of 

"Rybury." i N.W. of Stanton St. Bernard. Oval. 
*" Scratchbury Camp." i S.E. of Battlesbury. Irreg. 
3 6^^t. 

"Sidbury Hill." i^ N.W. of North Tidworth. Br. 
celt found on slope of hill. {Proc. Soc. Ant.^ ii. 1882, 

"White Sheet Castle." i N.E. of Stourton. 

Whitsbury, N. of. 

" Wick Ball Camp," near Tefifont Magna. 
*"Winklebury." \ S.E. of Berwick St. John. (Pitt- 
Rivers, Excavations, ii.) 

Woodford, i S.E. of. 
*"Yarnbury." On Berwick Down. N. of Steeple Lang- 
ford. Circ. I ent. 

Worcestershire — 

Berrow, near Martley. 

"Gadbury Bank." W. of Eldersfield. Irreg. Oval. 
Hanbury. Ro. coins found. 
The Mount, Beoley. 
Spetchley Park. Round Hill. 

Woodbury Hill, i W. of Witley Court. Irreg. i ent. 
*Wychbury Hill. S.E. of Pedmore. Irreg. i ent. 

Yorkshire — 

Argam, 5 N.W. of Bridlington. Line of entrenchment 

like that on Flamborough Head. 
Austerfield, near Bawtry. (?Ro.) 
Bridlington. On the Wolds W. of are several camps, 

some probably British, others Roman. 
"Castle Dyke." i^ S.W. of Aysgarth. 


Yorkshire {contd.^ — 

"Castle Dyke." N.W. of Ripon. 

" Castle Stead," near Pateley Bridge. (? Ro.) 
*'* Dane's Dyke, The." Double entrenchment, probably 
of the bronze period, fortifying Flamborough Head. 

Hawsett Moor. 

Highcliff Nab. S. of Guisborough. 

Kirklees Park, near Cooper's Bridge. (Traces only.) 

Lee Hill. N. of Slack. Circ. 

North Grimston, 2 E. of. (? Ro.) 

Norton, near. 

Roomer Camp, i S. of Masham. 

" Studfold Rings." J N. of Ampleforth. 

Swale R. and Tees R. Between these are many camps, 
dykes, and entrenchments, for which see Archcco- 
logia, vi. 

(At Blois Hall, near Ripon, at Thornborough, and near 
Penistone, are circular ewks, surrounded by a mound 
and mner trench, like that at Avebury, but without 
any standing stones. The nature of these ewks is un- 
known, but it can scarcely have been military, judging 
from the position of the ditch. Perhaps they were 
religious in their origin. Figsbury, in Wilts, is a 
similar edifice. See Allcroft, pp. 567 et scq.) 


(Some of those included belong to a period later than 
that commonly called prehistoric.) 

Buckinghamshire — 

" Grim's Dyke," near Prince's Risborough. 

Cambridgeshire — 

"The Devil's Ditch." Fens at Reach to woodlands at 

Camois Hall, near Wood Ditton. 
"The Balsham or Fleam Dyke." Fen Ditton, by Great 

Wilbraham and Fulbourne to near Balsham. 
"The Bran Ditch." Fen called Melbourn Common to 

Royston, ending at Haydon, in Essex. 
" The Brent Ditch." Pampisford to Abingdon Park. 
"The Roman Way." 


Cornwall — 

"The Giant's Hedg-e." From Trelawne to an earthwork 
on Bury Down. 

Cumberland — 

"The Bishop's Dyke," dividing parishes of Crosby and 

Warne enumerates twenty-five. The most important 
are — 
*"Bokerley Dyke." 
"Coomb Bank." W. of Spettisbury. 
Essex — 

"The Bran Ditch," entering from Cambridgeshire. 
Gloucestershire — 

*"Offa's Dyke." 
" Bagendon Earthworks. Dykes 3 N. of Cirencester. 
Hampshire — 

"The Devil's Dyke," near Andover. 

Herefordshire — 

*"Offa's Dyke." 
" Rowe Ditch," Pembridge. i mile long. 
Hertfordshire — 

" Grim's Dyke," on Berkhamstead Common. 
"The Bank," in the parish of Cheshunt. 
Great Berkhamstead, through North Church and 
Wigginton parishes to the north of the camp at 

Lancashire — 

Bleaberry Haws, dyke h mile long. 
Bacup, f N. of. 

Middlesex — 

Grimsdyke. Near Brockley Hill. (M. Sharpe, Diagram 
of Antiquities of Middlesex.) 

Norfolk — 

" Bunn's Bank," Attleborough. 

"The Devil's Dyke," or "Fen Dyke," connecting the 

marshland of the Wissey and Little Ouse. 
"The Devil's Dyke," connecting the marshland of the 

Wissey and Nar. 


Norfolk {contd.) — 

"The Devil's Dyke," on Garboldisham Heath. 
*' Fen Dyke," near Grime's Graves. 

Northumberland — 

"Awd Dyke," Brands Hill. 

" Black Dyke." Crosses Ro. wall S. of Brownlee Lough. 

Oxfordshire — 

"Grime's Dyke," or "The Devil's Ditch," between 

Mongewell and Henley, eleven miles in length. 
"Medlar's Bank," near and parallel to last, about 

fourteen miles long. 

Shropshire — 

*"Offa's Dyke." 

*" Watt's Dyke." Nearly parallel with the last, and 

about two miles to its east. An extensive but less 

important dyke. 

Somerset — 

" Pouter's Ball," or " Wall," near Glastonbury. (Allcroft, 
*"Wansdyke." [9-69). 

Wiltshire — 

*"Bokerley Dyke." 
" Grim's Dyke," in S. part of county. 
"The Roman Dyke." Shiftway Coppice, Rushmore. 
Roman or Romano - British. (Pitt - Rivers, Excava- 
tions, i.) 
*" Wansdyke." 
"The Old Ditch." On Salisbury Plain. 

Worcestershire — 
Pendock, near. 

Yorkshire — 

Vale of Pickering, many on the N. side of. 

" The Roman Rig." Between Sheffield and Mexborough, 

on the ridge of hills left of the Don. 
Between Catterick on the Swale and Gainford on the 

Tees (//. Arch. Inst., vol. vi.) 
"The Double Dykes," on Ampleforth Moors. 
The Scanridge Dykes at Ebberston and on the West 

Riding Moors in that district. 
From Richmond on the Swale to Barford on the Tees. 



SO far as we know, the earliest places of habitation of 
man were caves, grottos, rock-shelters, and other 
natural, if only partially efficient, protections from 
the wind and the weather. Of these sufficient has been 
said in previous chapters, and they need not further be 
alluded to. But in later times — in most cases probably, 
in much later times— there were other forms of prehistoric 
dwelling-place, of which remains are still in existence, 
which will form the subject of this chapter. Many of 
these were, if not originally connected with the late Celtic 
period, at least occupied during it. Since this period has 
yet to be dealt with, in dealing with them we are to some 
extent trenching upon the province of another chapter. 
There is reason for supposing, however, that the original 
construction of some of the villages was considerably 
earlier than would seem to be indicated by the discovery 
therein of objects belonging to their latest occupants. 
When Macaulay's New Zealander visits this country, he 
will not, if he is an instructed person, estimate the date 
of the foundation of Westminster Abbey by the latest 
monuments which it contains. 

In Belgium, the Abbe Gaillard has divided the neolithic 



stations — other, of course, than those of a lacustrine char- 
acter, with which we are not at present concerned — into 
two classes, which he calls respectively cites agrestes and 
stations a del oiivertes. The former are collections of 
underground habitations, in which the hearth was situated 
six feet or so below the level of the surface of the ground; 
the implements which belonged to the dwellers in such 
pits are to be found, as one would expect, at some distance 
below the soil. Of the dwellings of the second class no 
trace has been left, for, according to the writer just cited, 
the people of such stations lived in tents. Their occupa- 
tion, then, of any given spot is only obvious from the 
implements and pottery found thereat. In Belgium the 
dwellers in tents were less skilful in polishing stone than 
their pit-dwelling relatives (perhaps successors), and the 
pottery which they used was coarser and less ornate. It 
is perhaps not necessary to pin ourselves down too closely 
to the meaning of the word tent ; if we admit that it may 
be used to include other temporary above-ground resi- 
dences, made, for example, of boughs, sods of turf and 
the like, then it is probable that the same classes of stations 
may be recognised in this country. There are spots where 
great quantities of neolithic flakes and other traces of work 
in flint are to be found, without any evidence, in the near 
neighbourhood at least, of pits or huts for the dwellings 
of the workers. In such cases it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that tents or other temporary above-ground huts 
were their dwelling-places, and that all traces of these 
have now disappeared. Of the other, or underground, 
habitations we have plenty of remains, and it is these 
that we must first of all consider. 

Pit - dwellings. — Pit - dwellings, " hut - circles," the 
*' British villages" of the Ordnance maps, are the 
remains of habitations occupied, we can now say with 


certainty, in the Neolithic period. Pitt-Rivers thought 
that a careful examination of sites of this kind might 
prove that they all belonged to the late Celtic period, 
into which similar collections of habitations, such as that 
at Woodcuts, undoubtedly extended, if, indeed, they did 
not originate at that time. Later investigations have not 
confirmed this view, and the excavations in Kent by 
Mr. Clinch,^ and in Dorset by Dr. Colley March, ^ have 
settled the point that these structures were in use in 
the Premetallic period. Filled up as they now are with 
rubbish, nearly to the level of the surrounding ground, 
they look like dimples on the surface of the earth, and 
the shallow depressions thus formed are scarcely to be 
noticed, save by the trained eye. When examined, it 
would appear that the method of their construction has 
been somewhat as follows. First a hole was excavated 
in the ground twelve to thirty feet in diameter and three 
to six in depth. Sometimes the earth which was removed 
in making the hole was heaped up in a ring round its 
mouth, thus deepening the cavity and forming a wall 
which would prevent surface water from pouring into the 
pit. The walls of the pit were sometimes, as at Hurst- 
bourne, Hants, rudely pitched with stones. From the 
centre of the floor it is probable that in many cases 
the trunk of a tree was erected as a pillar for the support 
of the roof. Where the pit was of any considerable 
diameter, the presence of some central support for the 
roof would seem to have been indispensable. The roof 
itself, we may suppose, was formed by a number of 
boughs of trees fixed peripherally into the mound sur- 
rounding the pit and meeting centrally at the pillar 
which emerged from it. After the boughs had been 
placed in position they would have been covered over 

^ Joui'7i. A?ilJirop. Inst., s. ii. ii. 124. 
2 Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xviii. 258. 


with turfs removed from the surface of the ground (see 
Fig. 80). In one of the Kentish pits upwards of nine 
hundred fragments of flint, including cores, flakes, and 
waste chips were found, the evidence derived from them 


a. Natural soil b. Bank of same heaped up round pit. 

c. Central support of roof d. Roof of turfs and branches. 

and from other points being conclusive that this was 
a neolithic workshop. In the Eggardon pits examined 
by Dr. Collie March no trace of any metallic object was 
discovered. The same is true of those examined by 
Dr. Stevens at Hurstbourne and of the pits at Stand- 
lake, Oxon., of which there is a model in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford. These were examined by Akerman 
and Stone, but at a period when the science of examin- 
ing such structures was in its infancy. Hence Pitt- 
Rivers thought that further examination might lead to 
the discovery of metal in this village. In the light of 
the observations which have just been recorded, how- 
ever, this is more doubtful than when the General wrote. 
Besides the larger pits in the Kentish group, wherein we 
may suppose the men of the period lived, there were smaller 
excavations, in which only traces of fire were to be found. 
From this it would appear that in this locality it was the 
custom to use separate cooking-pits, in which animals may 
have been roasted whole — a custom which, as we know. 


obtains and obtained amongst many savage races. The 
method of construction of the pit was not quite the same 
in all cases. At Fisherton, for example, in the Wylye 
Valley, Wilts, there is a group of pits, of which models 
may be seen in the Devizes Museum. Here a shaft, some 
three feet in diameter, was sunk into the earth for a depth 
of from seven to ten feet. At some distance below the 
surface of the earth this shaft was expanded to a diameter 
of from five to seven feet, so that a kind of bottle-shaped 
cavity was formed in the earth, the neck of which was 
uppermost. The resemblance to a bottle was increased 
by the fact that in some cases the floor of the pit, formed 
of the chalk in which the excavation was made, was elevated 
in the centre, like the "kick" in the bottom of a wine-bottle. 
These pits to some extent resembled the dene-holes, which 
will shortly be described. 

Later Pits in Ramparted Villages. — In the case of the 
village at Woodcuts, so laboriously examined by Pitt- 
Rivers,^ there was a very complicated system of ditches 
and ramparts, as will be seen from the plan shown in 
Fig. 81. From the shallow nature of the former, it seems 
possible that these were designed more for purposes of 
surface drainage than for that of protection, and perhaps 
solely with the former object in view. 

In the pits contained within these ramparts were found 
pottery, including Samian ware, bronze and iron im- 
plements and Roman coins, clear evidence of a late date 
of occupation. These pits had apparently not been made 
for purposes of habitation, but as storehouses, or perhaps 
as refuse-pits. What is most remarkable is that they were 
also used for purposes of burial. In two villages at Wood- 
cuts, 191 of these pits were examined, and in them were 
found twenty-eight skeletons. Such pits were of a smaller 

' "Excavations in Cranbourne Chase, " vol. i. of Memoirs. 


diameter than those of the habitable class. Models of this 
village and of the excavations, showing where the different 
implements and skeletons were found, are in the Museum 
at Farnham, and here, also, are the remains and objects 
which were discovered in them. At the village itself, the 
ramparts and ditches are still quite distinct, and some of 
the pits which were cleared out, as well as the mouths of 
two deep wells discovered during the excavations, are yet 
to be seen. Similar villages have been described by 
Haverfield^ in the upper valley of the Thames, near 
Wallingford, Dorchester, Oxford, and Eynsham. Here 
the pits are partly wells, seven or eight feet deep, partly 
rubbish-holes, partly burial-places ; one, so large and 
irregular that it can hardly be called a pit, was found 
to contain over a hundred bushels of lime. The trenches, 
two to five feet deep, and two to three feet wide at the 
top, and V-shaped below, seem principally to represent 
the foundations of wattle and daub, or mud walls once 
surrounding various enclosures. These enclosures vary 
widely in shape and size. Some are circular, with diameters 
that range from 24 to 145 feet. Others are purely rect- 
angular or rhomboidal, and these are in general at least 
as large as the larger circles ; in some cases, indeed, we 
may have in them the lines of roads or field-walls. In 
several cases the circular and rectangular areas intersect, 
as if different in date. All the walls appear to have been 
mud or wattle and daub ; no traces of flint, or brick, or 
stone walls were noticed, nor even the footing courses 
which are almost invariably found in more modern mud 
walls. Late Celtic pottery and fragments of Samian were 
found in these pits, with other objects. Haverfield thinks 
that we have here a village, or something like a village, 
the inhabitants of which were engaged in pastoral, and 
possibly in agricultural pursuits. The circular enclosures, 

' Proc. Soc. Ant., s. ii. xviii. lo. 


the late Celtic urns, the burials, may denote that the 
village existed before the Roman Conquest, or, at any 
rate, before Roman civilisation spread over Oxfordshire. 
The rectangular enclosures may be, with the Samian and 
Romano-British pottery and other such things, the intro- 
duction of the second or third century of our era. 

Hut-dwellings have been found within stone wall en- 
closures in the Furness district, and described by Cowper.^ 
At High Hugill, near Windermere, in Westmorland, the 
site of the settlement consists of an enclosure, two sides 
of which are angular and two rounded. It was en- 
compassed by the foundations of a wall or rampart, 
which has been, in places, 14 feet in width. The foun- 
dations were apparently formed by stones set on edge, 
the space between which was probably filled in with 
smaller stones. Within this enclosure are sundry ill- 
defined lines of division walls, courts, and hut-dwellings, 
one or two of which are circular, and measure about 7 feet 
and 13 feet in diameter. 

At Mill Riggs, Kentmere, Westmorland, the settle- 
ment occupies a small terrace flanked by a cliff on the 
east, and is oval in form, measuring 240 feet north and 
south, 160 feet across its wider end at the north, and 
140 feet at the south, where it narrows. The walls seem 
to have been 7 to 10 feet thick, but they are now chiefly 
to be traced by their foundations. It is suggested that 
they were not of solid construction, but were faced by 
stone and filled up inside with softer stone, as was prob- 
ably the case at the settlements at Urswick, near Dalton- 
in-Furness, and Hugill, the spot described above. There 
were four entrances in all, placed on the south-east, west, 
north, and north-east sides, but it is not certain that all 
these were ancient. The interior of the settlement is sub- 
divided by cross walls, the use of which was perhaps for 

' Arcliccologia, liii 409; Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xvi. 253; xviii. 265. 


penning cattle. There are also six or seven hut circles. 
These are rounded mounds of earth and stones raised 
four feet or so above the level of the soil outside. The 
diameter of these huts is 15 to 25 feet internal measure- 
ment, and their doorways are placed to the north-west. 
Cowper is careful to distinguish these settlements from 
others in the same district, which are quadrangular in 
shape. The Furness sites, he thinks, with their irregular 
courts and groups of cairns, and with the absence of 
rectangular buildings which they show, were the home- 
steads of primitive communities, while the quadrangular 
structures seem to have been self-contained farms, almost 
certainly of post-Roman date. The late Bishop Creighton^ 
conveys a warning as to mistaking, on account of their 
shape, all circular excavations for early remains, and at 
the same time gives a picture which may enable us to 
form an idea of what the early dwellings of this kind 
were like and how their occupants may have lived in 
them. Speaking of the mediaeval period on the Borders, 
he says, "The houses of the peasants were huts of clay, 
frequently with the floors scooped out so as to resemble 
the beehive huts of primitive times. They were thatched 
with straw and were mere shelters against the weather. 
They contained no furniture, save perhaps a few wooden 
stools; the beds were litters of straw. There was nothing 
to tempt the cupidity of the plunderer, and the destruction 
of the house was not worth the time it would take. The 
common way of doing mischief was to fire the thatch, 
when the fire caused the walls to crumble. To prevent 
this loss the Borderer, if he had time, tore down the 
thatch of his house when a raid was announced, then 
he gathered his cattle and drove them to a place of safety. 
His wife walked by his side, carrying all the accumulated 
wealth of the family in a few personal ornaments which 

' " Carlisle, " in the: Historic Towns Series. 


hung around her neck." Not very different perhaps may- 
have been the flight of the occupants of some group of 
pit-dwellings to the fortified camp in their neighbourhood 
at the news of the approach of some hostile tribe. 

The Romano-British village at Wetton, in Stafford- 
shire,^ had its huts in rows or streets, and the precise 
position of each was indicated by a pavement of rough 
limestone, which had formed the floor. This remained 
either entire or in part. Sometimes the spot was shown 
by a sunken surface covered with ashes or charcoal and 
broken pottery, the teeth, bones, and horns of animals 
that had been used for food, burnt stones, and other 
vestiges of human occupation. The discovery of iron 
and bronze implements here, with Roman coins, leaves 
no doubt as to the period of this settlement. 

An instance of the existence of pits within a strongly 
fortified place must conclude this section of the chapter, 
and may be taken from the discoveries made at Worle- 
bury, near Weston-super-Mare. In this camp,^ and 
chiefly towards the eastern end of it, are nearly a hundred 
shallow pits. As the diameter of these is seldom more 
than six feet, and as some of them are much smaller, so 
much so as to make it even difficult to sit down in one in 
a cramped position, it can scarcely be supposed that they 
were intended as living-places. They were probably 
cellars or storehouses, and, as at Woodcuts and else- 
where, burial-places, for in the course of their excava- 
tions the explorers of these pits found parts of eighteen 
skeletons. The largest pit of all was six feet deep, tri- 
angular in shape, its sides measuring 6, 9 and 10 feet 
respectively. The pits are hollowed out of the rock 
where it is soft and easily removable. Besides the 
skeletons of men and bones of animals and birds, much 

^ Batcnian, Ten Years' Diggiuir, 194. 

- See Knit^ht, The Sea-Board of MentJip, iii. 


rude pottery, flint, bone and bronze objects, glass beads, 
and spearheads and other things made of iron were 
found. No Roman objects were discovered, so that we 
may provisionally place these pits at an early part of the 
early Iron age. 

Souterrains and Dene-holes. — Subterranean dwellings, of 
a more elaborate character than those already described, 
are not common ; indeed, are almost unknown in this 
country, though there are souterrains in connection with 
some of the ancient Cornish villages. In Ireland such 
underground chambers are common in the " raths " or 
forts, and are sometimes found apart from them. At 
Killala,^ for example, there are a series of underground 
chambers and passages of considerable size. The Scotch 
" Eirde houses," "weems," or " Pict's houses," are of a 
similar character; indeed, the resemblance of the Cornish, 
Scotch, and Irish examples seems clearly to point to a 
common origin. Others have been found in France, 
Hungary, and elsewhere. The most interesting structures 
of this type met with in England are the dene-holes, of 
which some account must now be given.- These sub- 
terranean chambers are reached by a vertical shaft of some 
depth, which appears to have been, at least in some cases, 
lined with flint stones where it passed through the Thanet 
sand — no doubt a somewhat treacherous stratum — to reach 
the subjacent chalk in which the chambers themselves were 
excavated. The special feature of these excavations is 
that each consists of a primary chamber from which others 
branch off, as shown in the annexed plan (Fig. 82). One 
system of chambers sometimes communicates with another, 
and thus a most complicated group of rooms is produced. 

' Journ. R. Soc. Ant /rekttid, viii. igi, 

2 For full account of the exploration of these, see Essex Naturalist, 
December, 1887. 


In other cases quite thin walls separate one set of chambers 
from another. In exploring the pits at Hangman's Wood, 
near Grays, Essex, bones of the horse, ox, sheep, dog, and 
badgerwere found, as also some human 
bones. Pottery, some of it mediaeval 
and some British, but in no great 
quantity, was also discovered. One of 
the most interesting finds was a piece 
of Niedermendig lava, once part of a 
stone for grinding corn. In connec- 
tion with these dene-holes, a number 
of underground passages, which have 
their entrance at Chislehurst in Kent, 
should be mentioned. These have 
been described by Mr. Nichols,^ but it 
is quite clear that they are for the most 
part of quite recent construction. The 
same may be said of some of the dene- 
holes, though it is quite possible that 
others may go back to the late Celtic 
period.- Underground dwellings have 
also been discovered in the isle of Portland,^ which are 
really subterranean beehive huts, completely walled in with 
flat stones overlapping inwards, until they leave an open- 
ing at the crown of 16 inches in diameter. This opening 
has generally been found to be covered with a slab. Over 
all was the soil about a foot in thickness. The height of 
these chambers was about 8 feet, though in one case it was 
12 feet, and the width at the bottom was from 10 to 12 feet. 
In one instance twin chambers were found, communicating 
with one another by a passage at the base 2 feet in height 
by 2 feet 6 inches in width. Skulls and bones of domestic 
animals, corn-crushers, a celt and flint flakes, with other 
stones and blackened wheat, have been found in these 

' Jl. British Arch. Ass., Dec, 1903, and April, 1904. 

^ Allcroft, Earihivorks of England, 248. See also Johnson's Folk Memory, 
234, for a lengthy account of the dene-holes, and Hayes, Jl. R. Anlhrup. 
Inst., xxxix. 44. 

* Damon, Geology of Weymouth, etc., 164. 

FIG. 82. 


chambers. It still remains doubtful whether they were 
storehouses or dwelling-places. The evidence at present 
forthcoming certainly seems to point to the former conclu- 
sion. Somewhat similar constructions have recently been 
discovered at Waddon, near Croydon. Flint implements 
and Romano-British pottery were discovered in them.^ 

Beehive Houses. — Take such an edifice as the last, and 
instead of burying it in the earth, erect it on the surface of 
the ground, and place its entrance at the side, and not at 
the top, and the result is the beehive house, a well-known 
object in Ireland. The tumbled-dovvn remains of such 
huts may be seen in the " cittiau " of Braich-y-Dinas, on 
Penmaenmawr. Examples are also met with in Cornwall, 
for example, at Chysoyster. These buildings, being made 
of rough stones, uncemented together by mortar, are of 
course very liable to tumble down. The principle on 
which they are constructed is that of advancing each 
course of stones a little nearer towards the centre of the 
hut than that immediately below it. As a result the walls 
gradually slope inwards until they meet at the top, the 
whole forming a figure like the old-fashioned straw bee- 
skep, from which their name is derived. 

Pile-dwellings. — To give anything like a complete 
account of the pile- and other lake-dwellings of the pre- 
historic period within the limits of this book would be an 
impossible task. Only the most prominent facts can be 
mentioned here, and those who desire to pursue their 
studies further may be referred to the books mentioned 
in the footnote.- In the first instance it may be said that 
the idea of the constructors of all these villages was to 
surround their places of habitation with water. A similar 
idea occupied the minds of the mediaeval castle-builder, 
and of the constructors of the terramare. But the end 
was achieved in a different way in the two cases. The 

' Reliquary, ix. 71. 

- Keller, Lake DivclUiigs of S~<vilzerlnnd ; Muiiro, TJie Lake Divellings of 
Europe, ami Ancient Scottish Lake Divellings ; Biilicid, Account of the L^ake 
Village at Glastonbury. 


lake-village was an artificial island, of one sort or another, 
in the midst of a natural sheet of water. The moat of the 
castle, or homestead, or terramare, was an artificial lake 
formed around a building on the dry land. The result 
was the same, though the method by which it was arrived 
at was different. 

The first method was that adopted by the constructors 
of the lake-villages of Switzerland, and of the crannoges 
of Ireland and Scotland ; but here again each went to 
work upon somewhat different lines. The builders of 
the lake-villages followed a plan which is still practised 
in New Guinea. How it is carried on there may be 
gathered from the account given by Haddon.^ In the 
first place a series of long poles pointed at one end were 
gradually worked into the bed of the lake. When a 
sufficient number of these were securely in position, 
a platform of wood was erected upon them, and on 
this platform log-houses, for the accommodation of the 
makers, were constructed. The platform and its houses 
may have then been connected with the shore by means 
of a gangway, and the task was completed. A very large 
number of villages of this kind have been discovered in 
different parts of the Continent. According to Mortillet 
there are in Switzerland 160 such settlements, and of 
these no less than 51 are in the Neuenberger See. 
There are 32 in France, 36 in Italy, 11 in Austria, and 
46 in Germany. At Staffis, in the Neuenberger See, 
there are two villages of the Bronze period, near together; 
one of them only measures a few square metres, whilst 
the other is over two hundred metres in length, and nearly 
fifty metres wide. The great settlement of Morges, in the 
Lake of Geneva, is 360 metres in length, and 30 to 45 in 
width; its area, in fact, is more than 10,000 square metres. 

The villages, then, vary considerably in size, and they 

^ Ilead-Hiiniers : Blacky Brown., and White. 


also vary in date. Some of them are of a comparatively- 
early period in the Neolithic age, or at least disclose im- 
plements which would lead one to come to that conclusion, 
for the stone hatchets which are found are small and im- 
perfectly polished. Moreover, they are made of serpentine, 
diorite, sausaurite, and other materials easily accessible. 
The pottery, too, is coarse and cylindrical, and shows no 
trace of ornamentation. In the greater number of the 
lake-villages of Switzerland implements of a better class 
are found, amongst them large perforated hammer-axes 
made of tough stone such as jade, chloromelanite, or 
nephrite. The pottery also speaks of a higher skill, for 
it is ornamented with various geometrical figures, dog- 
tooth, rows of dots and shaded triangles. In yet another 
series, articles of bone, of copper, and of bronze are met 
with, accompanied by still more richly ornamented pottery. 
The facts just mentioned go to prove that this class of 
village was in use over a long period of time. In the 
valley of the Mandel, Belgium,^ a village has been 
discovered, supported upon many piles of oak, in which 
have been found flint implements, objects of bone and 
bronze, pottery, and a coin of Trajan. From this we 
learn that this particular village — and the same may be 
true of others — had been the home of men for many 

In the case of the crannoge, so common in Ireland and 
Scotland, and utilised in both countries up to so very 
recent a period, instead of rearing a platform upon piles, 
an artificial island was constructed by heaping brush- 
wood, stones, and other matters together in a selected 
spot on the floor of the lake and driving piles into its 
floor around the heap so as to prevent its being washed 
away by the action of the waves. By this means an 
artificial, but approximately solid platform was formed, 

^ L Anthropologic, xii. 558. 


upon which the houses were erected, and this again was 
connected with the shore by means of a gangway. Near 
Clones, in Ireland, is a crannoge which has been very 
carefully investigated with the following results.^ Part 
of this crannoge consisted of a small natural shoal of 
marl, which had been supplemented by laying down three 
or four superimposed layers of tree-trunks, some eighteen 
inches in diameter — birch, oak, and fir. Beneath these 
was a layer of earth and stones. The remaining portion 
of the crannoge rested on the bed of the lake and con- 
sisted of (i.) a layer, the lowest, of bracken, fern, and 
moss ; (ii.) branches of oak and blackthorn and hazel 
with large stones in places. In this layer were both 
horizontal logs and perpendicular piles; (iii.) clay and 
gravel. In the construction of the entire crannoge 
metallic implements had been used, and in it were found 
implements of stone, bronze, iron, bone, and wood, also 
pottery, glass, and a leather dagger-sheath. 

So far, it must be admitted, the discoveries of this 
class in England have been few, and, with the exception 
of the remarkable discoveries at Glastonbury, not very 
important. Duncombe^ has described a number of piles 
in the river Costa, near Pickering, Yorks, which appear 
to have belonged to a construction of the Swiss nature. 
Bones of various animals and fragments of pottery have 
been found in the bed of this stream. Near Hedsor, Bucks,^ 
an oak floor about four inches in thickness, supported 
upon piles of oak and beech, varying in diameter from 
five to nine inches, was found, under about 2 feet 6 inches 
of alluvium and six feet of peaty soil. The principal and 
larger piles were about five feet apart, and the small thickly 
studded between them. Pottery and iron objects were 
found in the excavation of this village, the construction 

^ T>'Arcy,Jouni. Roy. Soc. Aitt., Ireland, vii. 205. 

"^ Joiirn. Anthrup. Inst., i. 151. •* Pruc. Soc. Ant., ii. xvi. 7. 


of which, owing to the difficulties met with in the explora- 
tion, has not been very clearly made out. Pitt-Rivers 
called attention to the existence of piles in beds of peat 
seven to nine feet deep, near London Wall and in South- 
wark. The articles found near them were for the most 
part Roman, but some of the bone implements were of 
a rude type. 

The most interesting and the most carefully examined 
object of this class is the village near Glastonbury, 
most of the things found in which are to be seen in 
the Museum in the little town itself. The peat-moor 
where it lies w^as once a mere, and here an artificial 
platform of clay and timber had been constructed and 
surrounded by a stockade composed of a palisade of 
piles from three to nine inches in diameter, and from 
nine to eleven feet in height, between which was a kind 
of rough hurdle-work. On this platform was a series of 
huts, each about twelve to fourteen feet in diameter, con- 
structed of wattle and daub, with a stone hearth in the 
centre, and a few stones in front of the door — which was 
about three feet in height — by way of threshold. As one 
might expect, a foundation of timber and clay was not of 
a very stable character, and must gradually have sunk so 
as to render the huts uncomfortably damp. No doubt it 
was on account of this fact that it was found necessary 
from time to time to raise the level of the floors by the 
addition of fresh wood and clay. As the old hearthstones 
seem always to have been left behind, we have a guide to 
the number of times that the operation of raising the floor 
was necessary, and find that it took place no less than 
nine times in the case of one hut, whilst others show four, 
five, or six superimposed hearths. A remarkable series of 
objects in metal — particularly a bronze bowl made familiar 
by the reproductions of it which have been constructed — 
glass, and wood have been discovered in this village. 


Indeed, one of the interesting things about the village is 
the evidence which it presents as to the carpentry of the 
period, as well as the love of art which existed. The peat 
having preserved the timber, which in so many other 
places has decayed, we know that their bowls — there is 
a model of one of these in the British Museum which 
admirably exemplifies this point — and even the waggon 
wheels were decorated with scrolls and patterns of a flam- 
boyant character. Mr. A. J. Evans^ thinks that the whole 
series of remains was accumulated within a definite period 
of not very extensive duration, which closed before the 
days of Roman contact. On the other hand, the relics do 
not belong to the earlier style of the ** late Celtic " fabrics 
in Britain, as illustrated by the Arras chariot-burials in 
Yorkshire, but might be referred to the first and second 
centuries before Christ, though some belonged to a date 
coming very close to the period of Roman influence. 
A typical form of fibula or safety-pin, on the other hand, 
is identical with specimens found in association with 
Ptolemaic coins of the second century before Christ, in 
the Illyro-Celtic cemetery of Gurina, in the Gailthal. 
The remains at Glastonbury thus represent the results of 
the second wave of Belgic or East Gaulish conquest in 
this island. Other contemporary aspects of the same 
culture are seen in the Aylesford cemetery, associated 
with imported Italo-Greek vases, and in the Oppidum 
or fortified settlement at Hunsbury, near Northampton. 
The relics found in the well-known camp at Worlebury, 
Weston-super-Mare, show the same culture under a 
military aspect in this western district; but in the 
Glastonbury village the population was apparently un- 
armed and peaceful. 

Terramare. — Although no instances of this kind of 

^ Journ, Anthrop. Inst., s. ii. i. i88. 


village has been discovered in this country, or indeed 
outside of Italy, a brief reference may be permitted to 
them here. A moated enclosure with pile-dwellings 
inside it, such was a terramare. The moat, fed by a 
canal, and crossed by a bridge, surrounded a heaped-up 
rampart, within which was an enclosure. So far the 
arrangement differs in no important way from the moated 
enclosures of this country, but of a much later date. But 
in our moated enclosures there is generally a mound or 
earthen keep. In the terramare the enclosure was occupied 
by a number of huts built on a platform which was itself 
supported on piles, but on piles driven into the dry ground, 
and not into the bed of a lake. No doubt this kept the 
huts dry, and may also have been convenient for the 
herding of cattle in the same enclosure. The relics found 
within the terramare show that they belonged to the Bronze 


In the following" list all classes above mentioned are included, 
diflFerentiation being made where possible. Where no state- 
ment to the contrary is made the pit-dwelling or British village 
is meant. Only a selection of sites is included in this list. 

Bedfordshire — 

Blowsdown, E. of Dunstable. 
Dunstable Downs, near Dagnal. 
Dunstable Downs, near the Five Knolls. 
Luton, Warden Hills. 

Berkshire — 

Little Coxwell, J E. of. 

Long Whittenham (Rom. Brit.) 

Buckinghamshire — 

Hedsor. Pile-dwellings. {Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xvi. 7.) 


Cumberland — 

*Birker Fell, Barnscar. With sepulchral cairns. 
Bootle Fell. 

Brampton, near. Castle Carrock and Cardonnock Pike. 
Caldwell, near, Carrock Fell. Doubtful. ^ 
Gillalees Beacon, Lower Brow. Doubtful. 
Thelkeld, Wanthwaite Crags. Old settlement, examined 

without very definite results. 
Thwaites Fell. 

Cornwall — 

Bodinnar. With subterranean passage. (See Proc. Soc. 

Ant., ii. iv. 161.) 
Bodmin Moor. Brockabarrow Down. 
Bodmin Moor. Browngelly Downs. 
Bodmin Moor, near Fox Tor. 
Bodmin Moor. Garrow Tor. 
Bodmin Moor, near Leskernick Hill. 
Bodmin Moor. Rowtor Moor. 
*Bosporthennis. Beehive Hut. 
Calvanack, near. \\ S.E. of Croft Michel. 
Carn Brea, on and near. Excavated ; many flint im- 
plements found, also pottery. (7>. Plym. List., 

xii. 102.) 
Chapel Enny. (Ref. as Bodinnar.) 
*Chysoyster. With remains of souterrains. (Ref. as 

Chian Castle. 

Croft Michel, f S. of, near Camborne. 
Lanyon. Near West Lanyon Quoit. 
Morvah, near. 
Mulfra Hill, on. 
MuUyon, near Kynance Cove. {Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. 

xvii. 79.) 
Newbridge, near. 3 E. of St. Just. 
Old BusuUow, near Morvah. 
Sancreed, \\ S.W. of. 
Smallacombe Down, Bodmin Moor. ** Smallacombe 

Enclosures." Pottery and worked flints have been 

found here. 




Cornwall {contd.) — 

Tregonebris, near. 
Twelve Men's Moor. 

Devonshire — 

(Very numerous, the followingf 


Believer Tor. 

Brent Moor. 

Brown Heath, near Erme 

Cadover Bridge, near clay 
works. {Tr. Ply in. Inst., 
X. 296.) 

Cawsand Beacon. 

Dunnabridge Pound, Dart- 
moor. Walled enclosure 
containing "The Judge's 
Chair." Group of stones. 
Nature doubtful. 

Evilcombe, Dartmoor. Re- 
mains of beehive huts. 
(Ref. as Cadover, 389.) 
*Grimspound,near Hameldon 
Tor. Walled village with 
hut circles. 

Harford Moor. 

Harter Tor. 


Hen Tor. Hut circles and 
enclosures. (Ref. as Cad- 
*Kestor. [bridge. 

Lakehead Circle, near Post- 


(Very numerous, the following being the most im- 

Cattistock. (i.)|N.E. of. (ii.) i| E. of. 

Cerne Abbas, (i.) if W. of. (ii.) f N. of. (iii.) ^ S.E. of, 
on Black Hill. 

being the most important.) 

Legis Tor. Many hut circles 
and enclosures. (Ref. as 

Leighon Tor. 

Manaton, near. Walled en- 
closure, perhaps a cattle- 
*Merivale Bridge, Dartmoor. 
"The Plague Market," or 
"Potato Market." 


Mis Tor, between it 
Cock's Hill. 

Rolls Tor, or Roose 

near. (Flint implements 
found here.) 

Shell Top. 

Shilstone Pound. 

Shuffle Down. 

Stannon Hill. 
*Teigncombe Common. The 
Round Pound and the 
Square Pound. 

Trowlesworthy Tor. With 
fortified enclosure. (Ref. 
as Cadover.) 

Yar Tor, near Buckfastleigh. 


Dorsetshire {contd.) — 

*Chalbury, near Weymouth, surrounded by fosse and 
vallum. " Rimbury," close by, seems to have been 
the necropolis of this village. 

Chettle, I S.W. of. 

Eg-gardon Hill. {Proc. Soc. Atit., ii. xviii. 258.) 

Farnham, if S.E. of. 

Grimstone, f N. of. 

Hinton Parva, | N. of. 

Hod Hill. 

Maiden Newton, if E. of. 
*Portland (dene-holes). Cf. Damon's Geology of Weymouth. 

S. of. 

Plush, 1 S.E. of. 

Shillingstone, i S. of. 

Sydling St. Nicholas, \ S.E. of. 

Tarrant Hinton. (i.) i W. of. (ii.) i\ S.W. of. 

Tenant's Hill, near the stone circle. 

Turnworth, i N.W. of. 

West Compton, i E. of. 

Winterbourne Kingstone, i S.W. 


*Woodcuts, near ToUard Royal. 

(Excavated by Pitt- 

Rivers. See text.) 

Essex (dene-holes) — 

East Tilbury. 

*Grays, near. Hangman's Wood. 

Little Thurrock. 

Gloucestershire — 

Cam Long Down. 

Minchinhampton, near Amberley Camp. 
Selsley Hill, in the area of the camp. 
*Stinchcombe Hill, near the Drakestone. 
*Westridge Hill, near Wotton-under-Edge. 

Hampshire — 

Burghclere, | S.W. of. In camp. 

On Brighstone Down, S.E. of Calbourne, Isle of Wight. 
Eight villages. 


Herefordshire — 

Holly Bush Camp, on Malvern Hills, S. of. 

Kent — 

Addington Park, Hayes Common. {Proc. Soc, Afit.^ 
ii. xii. 258.) 

Lancashire — 

Dunnerdale Fell. (C.) 
Heathwaite Fell. (C.) 
Monk Coniston Moor. 

Seethwaite StoneWalls. (C.) {Q. ^Cow^tv yArchceologia, 
liii. 409.) 

Norfolk — 

Aylmerton. "The Shrieking' Pits." 
Beeston Heath. " Hills and Holes." 

Wretham Mere, near Thetford. (Lake-dwellings. See 
Norf. Arch., vii. 355.) 

Northumberland — 

Beanley. Near and in "The Ringses." 

Bewick, at the Double Camp. 

Brough Law, near Ingram. 

Carry Hill Camp, near. {Archceologia, xlv. 355.) 

"The Chesters," near The Breamish. 

Colledge, Valley of, near Kirknewton. 

Colwell Hill Camp, near. 

Earle Dene, near Earle. 

Fawcett Shank, near Kirknewton. {Trans. Berw. Nat. 
Field Club, 1861 and 1862.) 
*Greaves Ash, near Linhope Fame. Greenshaw Hill. 

Gunnar Heugh Valley, near Gunnarton. 

Hartside Hills. 
*Hawsden Burn, by. Near Brand's Hill. (Cheviots.) 

Humbleton Hill. 

Ilderton, Roseden Edge. 

Ingram Hill. 

*Lord-in-Shaws, near Rothbury. 


Northumberland (contd. ) — 

Megrim's Knowe, near The Breamish. 

Middleton Hill, near Wallington. 

Snear Hill. (Cheviots.) 

Swint Law, near Yeavering Bell. 

Thorngrafton, near Haltwhistle. 

West Hill, near Rothbury. 

Wooler, at Kettles Camp. 

Yeavering Bell. (Cf. ref. to Greaves Ash.) 
Oxford — 

Chadlington Downs, near Chipping Norton (dene-holes). 
(See Essex Report, supra.) 
*Standlake. Explored 1857. (See Archccologia , xxxvii. 
363, and also reprint of lecture by Boyd-Dawkins in 
Gents. Mag. Lib. (Arch.), 1. 301. Objects obtained 
are in the Ashmolean Museum. 

Shropshire — 

Pike's End, Lyneal - cum - Colemere. Possible Lake- 
village. {Proc. Soc. Ant.^ ii. xix. 140.) 

Somerset — 

Brean Down. 
Staffordshire — 

Borough Holes, near Wilton. 

Barton Mere, 3 N.E. of Bury St. Edmunds. Said to be 
Lake-dwellings, but very doubtful. 

Surrey — 

Croydon. Waddon, near. Subterranean beehive cham- 
bers. Flints and Ro.-Brit. pot. {Reliquary, ix, 71.) 

Leatherhead, near. Pottery, charred wheat, etc. {Proc. 
Soc. Ant., ii. xviii. 253.) 

Sussex — 

Cissbury, west slope of area. 

Goodwood. "The Trundle." 


Kingby Bottom, near Lavant. 



Westmorland — 

Crosby Ravensworth. Ewe Close, Oddendale. 
Crosby Ravensworth. Howarcles. 
Great Asby Scar. 
Holborn Hill. 
*Hugill High House, Windermere. {Proc. Soc. Ant.y 
ii. xvi. 253.) 
Kentmere. {lb. ii. xviii. 265.) 

Kirkby Lonsdale. (TV. Cumb. and Westm. Aniig. Soc, vii.) 
Knype Scar, Bampton. 
Langdale, Harbyn Ring". 
Lowther Woodhouse. 
Moor Witherslack, Harnburn Rigg. 
Urswick, near Dalton-in-Furness. (Arckceol., xliii. 409.) 

Wiltshire — 

(Very numerous. The following are the most im- 
Barford St. Martin, N. of. Hams Hill Ditches. 
Berwick St. John, ^ E. of. 
Bower Chalk, i S.E. of. 

Broad Blumsdon, -| N.E. of. "Castle Hill." 
Chitterne St. Mary, W. of. Two settlements. 
Durrington Walls. | S.W. of Durrington. 
*Fisherton Delamere. 
Fyfield Down. 

Great Ridge Wood, S. of. Four settlements. 
Hindon, | N.W. of. 
Huish Hill, 1 E. of Huish. 
Imber, i N.W. of. 
Longbridge Deverill, S.W. of. 
Marden, I N.E. of. 
Marlborough, ih N.W. of. 
Martinsell Hill. 

Monkton Down, i^ E. of Winterbourne Monkton. 
Ogbourne St. George, N.E. of. Several settlements. 
Pewse}^ Down. 

Rotherley. Explored by Pitt - Rivers. (See vol. ii. of 
his Excavations.\ Romano-British. 


Wiltshire {coiitd.) — 

Rushmore. (Do. vol. i.) Romano-British pits. 
Sherrington, 3 W. of. 
*Steeple Langford Downs. {Bt-iL Arch. Jl.^ 1862, 22 and 

117. Archceologia , xxii. 430.) 
*" Stockton Works," i\ S.W. of Stockton. Ro.-Brit. 
pottery. Ro. coins. 
Stonehenge, 2 W. of. 
Swallow Cliffe, i S. of. 
Tilshead, 2i E. of. "Church Pits." 
Westbury, | N.W. of. 
Wootton Rivers, i N.W. of. 

Yorkshire — 

Blakey Moor, if W. of Rosedale. Stone Haggs. 
Blayshaw Bents, near Stean. 
Danby Moor. (Date and use very doubtful.) 
Egton, moor near. 

Goathland. " Killing Pits." Very probably only kilns. 
Rudstone, near the. 
*Scarborough, Wolds near. Many dwellings. 
Skipwith Common. 

Lake-dweUings — 

Barmston. (Bronze.) 

Gransmoor. (Bronze.) 

Pickering. (//. Anthrop. Inst.^ s. ii. i. 151.) 

Ulrome. (Bronze.) 


IT has already been 
shown that there was 
a considerable over- 
lap between the Stone 
and the Bronze age. The 
Bronze age also over- 
lapped that of Iron ; in- 
deed, the Stone probably 
overlapped it too, for it 
is most probable that 
objects such as the elabo- 
rate perforated stone ham- 
mers (see Fig. 8s) were 
used long after the metals 
were in common employ- 

The discovery of iron 
was, some would have us 
believe, due to its being 
found in a nearly pure 
state in meteoric masses; 
others think that it may 
have arisen from pieces 
of rich iron ore becoming fig. 83. perforated stone axe-hammer. 

accidentally embedded in ^''^^ (i> 



the domestic fire, the burning embers of which would 
easily reduce them to the metallic state. Or again, 
perhaps primitive man, who had already ascertained that 
metallic copper could be obtained from certain stones, 
made experiments with other stones, with the result that 
he lighted upon iron.^ 

Ridgeway- is of opinion that iron was discovered by 
the Celts, and certainly the objects of the Early Iron age 
in this country appear to have been made by a Celtic 
race, whose track can be traced across Europe from the 
Mediterranean to Britain. The most important stations 
so far discovered in which objects of the Early Iron age 
have been brought to light are on the Continent, and 
some mention must be made of them before the objects 
belonging to this period in England are dealt with. The 
stations in question are those of Hallstadt and La Tene ; 
according to Montelius^ the succession and dates of these 
periods may be arranged as follows : — 

Hallstadt, i. 850 — 600 B.C. Period of transition from bronze to 

iron, which might be also called 
the last (or, according to his classi- 
fication, sixth) age of bronze. 
Hallstadt, ii. 600 — 400 b.c. 

La Tene, i. 400 — 250 B.C. 
La T^ne, ii. 200 — 150 B.C. 
La T6ne, iii. 150B.C. — a.d. 

The lake of Hallstadt,^ near which are the cemeteries 
from the excavation of which so much has been learnt 
about this period, is situated in the midst of the Austrian 
Alps. Nearly one thousand graves have been opened 
there, and the examination of these has disclosed the fact 

^ Gowland, ArchcEologia, Ivi. 302. 

- Early Age of Greece, from which other opinions cited in this chapter, 
under the name of this author, are taken. 

^ L' Anthropologic , xii. 609. 

^ For a learned and fully illustrated account of the objects of this period 
seQ Arch. f. A7tthrop., iii. 233. 



that burials were sometimes by inhumation, sometimes 
by cremation, and sometimes by partial cremation; that 
is to say, that whilst the greater part of the body was 
inhumated, some portion, perhaps only a very small part 
of the body, was separated from the rest for the purpose 
of being subjected to the action of fire. 

With the remains of the dead were deposited, as accom- 
panying gifts, their weapons and ornaments. The swords 
show the gradual transition from bronze to iron, for some 
are entirely of the former metal, some have iron blades 
and bronze hilts, and others are forged from iron alone. 
These weapons are all leaf-shaped, and do not gradually 
taper to their end, but are brought abruptly to a kind of 
triangular point. The handgrip is large in all of them, 
a point of contrast with the relatively small size of this 
part of the earlier bronze weapon. Spears are very 
common, and are almost all made of iron. The axe-heads 
tell the same tale as the swords. Some are of bronze — 
socketed and flanged ; a larger number are of iron ; one 
has its cutting edge of iron, whilst the shaft-bed and 
flanges are of bronze. It was found in a tomb together 
with an iron dagger, provided with a bronze handle. 
Two helmets, many plates of bronze, bosses of circular 
shields, are other objects of a martial character which 
have been brought to light. Amongst the ornaments 
none are more numerous nor more important than the 
brooches, of which several as a rule were found in each 
grave. They belong to two classes: (i.) those of the safety- 
pin type, and (ii.) those formed by bending a single piece 
of round wire into two spirals, one at either end, so as to 
form two discs, the so-called "spectacle-fibulas." These 
had sometimes an iron, more often a bronze, pin. Pins, 
rings, armlets, spirals, chains, and beads of gold, bronze, 
amber, and glass, with other objects, should be added to 
the list of ornaments buried with the dead of Hallstadt. 


La Tene is a place, near the village of Marin, to the 
north of the Neuenberger See in Switzerland, which was, 
according to Ridgeway, undoubtedly an oppidum of the 
Helvetii. Here the admixture of the two metals, which 
was noticed at Hallstadt, is no longer discoverable. The 
swords, the spear-heads, and the axes are all of iron. 
The swords are from thirty to thirty-eight inches in length, 
the handles forming from four to seven and a half inches 
of this. They have a double-edged blade, which usually 
possesses a mid-rib. The edges are parallel, or nearly 
so, almost to the extremity, which ends in a rounded 
point, if such a term may be allowed. 

Attached to the heel of the blade is a curved ridge, 
which on its concave aspect adapts itself to the upper 
end of the scabbard. This last was sometimes wholly 
of bronze, sometimes provided with scapes of that metal, 
and in either case at times considerably ornamented. 
The shield was oblong. Many agricultural implements 
were used by the inhabitants of this oppidum, sickles, 
scythes, shears — a very characteristic object — rakes, and 
ploughs, and all were made of iron. The pins, which 
are made of bronze or iron, are characterised by the 
double-sided spiral winding of the head, and particularly 
by the extension of the pin-trough, which is bent back- 
wards towards the shoulder-piece. But the points of 
greatest interest in connection with the race and culture 
of which La Tene is the name-site, are the pottery and 
the style of ornament. For with this civilisation for the 
first time the potter's wheel enters into this country. This 
point will be more fully dealt with in a few pages, where 
the scheme of ornament which belongs to it will be more 
particularly considered. At present it may be stated that 
it is specially characterised by a form of scroll, of a 
flamboyant type, and believed to have been derived from 
the palmetto of the Greeks. Figures of animals, with 


arabesques and flourishes, masks of human faces and 
other ornaments were applied to their vessels and to other 
articles in common employ. Enamelling also seems to 
have been a discovery of this people, and the chief 
countries in which it was practised were England and 

We may now turn to the consideration of the objects 
belonging to this period which have been discovered in 
our own country. In the last chapter as much has been 
said as space will permit concerning the villages belonging 
to this stratum of culture. Having called attention to 
them, we may next consider the question of interments, 
before passing under notice some of the individual objects 
discovered in the villages, or with the remains of the dead. 

The " Dane's Graves"^ is the local name of a burying- 
ground of the Late Celtic period, near Kilham, East Riding 
of Yorkshire. The interments here were by inhumation, 
and in a contracted position. 

One of them was a "chariot-burial," that is to say, the 
chariot of the dead man had been buried with him, but 
not, it would appear, since there were no horses' bones 
discoverable, the animals which had been accustomed to 
drag it. Two snaffle-bridle bits of iron were found, also 
several rings and ornaments of bronze. From the position 
of the objects in the grave it seems that the wheels must 
have been taken off the body of the chariot and laid upon 
their sides. The body of the car was deposited upon them, 
and the trappings of the horses laid beside them. One of 
the bodies in this grave had some personal ornaments, 
amongst them two bosses, originally connected with the 
fastening of the belt, which were made of white shell set 
in thin bronze sockets. In this connection it may be 
noted that in another grave was found a pin whose head 
was wheel-shaped, with four spokes, perhaps a representa- 

^ Proc. Soc. Ant., ii. xvii. 119. 


tion of a chariot wheel. This pin, which was made of 
bronze, was also inlaid with fragments of white shell. 
Other chariot-burials have been found at Arras ^ and 
Beverley. At the former place in one such interment the 
whole of the chariot, together with its horses, had been 
buried with its former owner. In two others at the same 
place only the wheels of the chariot had been laid with the 
dead man, perhaps as sufficiently representing the entire 
object. At Beverley the same state of things was found, 
for there also remains of two wheels and an iron bit were 
the only objects discovered, even the bones of the interred 
body having completely disappeared. Other interesting 
objects found in the Arras interments — some of the spoils 
of which are in the York, some in the British Museum — 
are iron mirrors. Before leaving the subject of chariot- 
burials, mention may be made of the fact that they occur 
on the Continent in the La Tene stratum. At Nanterre,'^ 
for example, in France, an interment of this class has 
recently been described. Here the horses had been 
buried with their master, as their bones as well as their 
trappings and parts of the tyres of the wheels were found 
in the grave. The metallic objects were partly of iron, 
partly of bronze. 

A group of barrows of the period now under considera- 
tion was opened by Greenwell at Cowlam, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire. ^ 

By far the most important series of interments, how- 
ever, which have so far come to light are those at Ayles- 
ford, described in an elaborate paper by Mr. A. J. Evans.'* 
In this cemetery the cinerary urns were placed in shallow 
pits no great distance below the surface of the ground, 
and with no mounds heaped up over them. With the 

^ Greenwell, British Barroivs, 454. " L Anthropologic, xiii. G6. 

■* Brit. Barrows, 20S. Sec also note on p. 50 in the same book for further 
instances of interments of this class, ■* Archceologia, lii. 


urns were placed smaller vessels and other objects. The 
pits described by Mr. Evans formed an irregular ellipse 
and represented, in his opinion, a group of interments 
belonging to the same family. He also points out that 
this cemetery fits on to a widespread group of "urn- 
fields " containing cremation interments as this did, the 
first appearance and dissemination of which in central 
and northern Europe goes pari passu with the diffusion 
of the Early Iron age culture, and the final triumph of 
iron over bronze. There are certain slight differences, 
a tendency to place several cinerary urns in the same 
grave, and a reduction in the number of the accessory 
vessels placed w^ith that containing the ashes themselves. 
This urn-field belongs to the period which preceded the 
Roman invasion of Britain ; its immediate antecedents 
are to be sought in the Belgic parts of Gaul, but may 
be ultimately traced to an extensive Illyro-Italic province 
and to a southern branch of the urn-field group character- 
ising the Early Iron age of east-central Europe. It 
appears that the main portion of the cemetery was occu- 
pied by the "family-circle" type of interments, associated 
with objects characteristic of the Late Celtic culture. But 
on the outskirts were other interments, with relics of an 
earlier civilisation, which seems to show that this site was 
utilised, not only by the later Celtic people, who had intro- 
duced from Gaul these new sepulchral methods, but also 
by the representatives of the race who had occupied this 
country before their arrival, and that the two races lived 
side by side in its neighbourhood. Or, of course, the 
invaders may have made use of a cemetery which had 
previously been formed by the earlier race. 

Pottery. — Turning now to the objects found in this 
cemetery and to other objects belonging to the same 
period as that with which it is connected, we may first 


pay attention to the pottery. This differs in several 
respects from the earlier pottery, of which some mention 
has been made in chapter vii. In the first place, it is 
thrown on a wheel, and not hand-made, as in the other 
case, and here, of course, we touch a cardinal point of 
distinction. Then, in the next place, the paste is much 
finer. In the older style of pottery fragments of stone 
and grit were mixed with the clay of which the vessels 
were built up. These are almost entirely wanting in the 
later pottery, though occasionally small grains of quartz 
may be made out. The clay is of much finer quality, 
and the burning has been better carried out. As a general 
rule the internal colour of the pottery is of a light brown 
colour, though occasionally it may be of a pale brick 
shade resembling some Roman vases. The surface seems 
in almost all cases to have been coated with pigment. 
This, which is black and shining, was probably formed 
from charcoal very finely pounded, a method employed in 
the case of Gaulish vases of a contemporary period. 
When this pigment has worn away, the outer surface 
is left of a dark brown colour. 

No one would apply the word graceful to the heavy 
pottery of the earlier period, but it is a term that may 
well be used of that with which we are now concerned. 
The contours of the vases, says Mr. Evans, from whose 
paper the facts here given have been collected, are often 
of real elegance, and the finer among them are provided 
with well-turned pedestals. Amongst their most char- 
acteristic features are the raised cordons or ribs, generally 
defined by two lateral grooves by which they are accom- 
panied, and which divide the body into zones. Sometimes 
these zones are themselves decorated with finely incised 
sloping lines, and at times other linear ornaments, such 
as zigzags and sprays, have been drawn with a blunt 
point. At times, again, the whole side of the vessel is 


covered with comb-markings that give it the appearance 
of basket-work or of the grain of wood. This kind of 
ornament is perhaps borrowed from the older form of 
pottery, for there the forms and ornaments of the basket- 
work in which it had its origin are reproduced with 
certain modifications and additions. The Aylesford class 
of pottery seems to extend over the whole of south-eastern 
England, examples having been found at Elveden, in 
Essex, and elsewhere. It has also been found in Dorset- 
shire, including the Isle of Portland, at Northampton, 
and at Hunsbury close by. 

Buckets or Situlse. — One of the most remarkable and 
beautiful objects in the Aylesford find was a bronze-plated 
pail, composed of w^ooden staves, bound together with 
three bronze bands, the two lower of which were destitute 
of ornament. The upper band, which encircled the rim 
of the bucket and carried the handle, was ornamented with 
repousse-wor^i representations of animals and scroll-like 
ornaments. The handle, which was movable, was made 
of iron plated with bronze. It was ribbed in several 
places, and was connected with the pail itself by an 
attachment, on either side, shaped like a human head, 
bearing a sort of crested helmet. As for the decorations 
on the upper band, these are of two kinds, foliated and 
zoomorphic, and an examination of them has led Mr. 
Evans to enunciate some very interesting views as to 
their connections. Fig. 84^ shows a quintuple scroll 
resembling, in all but the number of its parts, a design 
found on a scabbard at La Tene itself. A comparison of 
this with other La Tene sheaths leads him to believe that 
this ornament is really a modification of the upper volutes 
of a Greek anthemion or palmette. In Fig. 84- is 
shown another of the foliated ornaments from this bucket- 
rim. Here in the centre is a circle of volute petals. 



Above and below it are foliated scrolls, with a general 
resemblance to those in the other figure. The "circle" 
represents in fact one of the star-like flowers, sometimes 
rendered as volutes, which on Greek bronze vases and 
other ornamental metal-work often appear encircled by the 
sprays of arabesque foliage, serving at times as offshoots 
for a palmette. The animals, with curved horns, which 


form the remaining ornaments of the rim of the pail, have 
their bodies facing one another, but their heads turned back 
to back. The tails are bifid. This is not an uncommon 
motif \n archaic Greek and Oriental art. Sometimes the 
bodies, placed as they are in this case, have but a single 
head. This type has been explained as being due to a 
primitive attempt at perspective, the intention being to 
show both sides of an animal in a single front view. On 
the other hand, Ridgeway mentions that on some Attic 
coins are to be seen figures of two owls with one head, 
and on a Mycenaean gem two lions with a common head. 
These, he thinks, are the last remnant of the common 
Mycenaean motif of pairs of animals facing one another. 
Animals of a monstrous character with one head and two 
bodies are not by any means unknown, and perhaps it may 
be suggested that the sight of such a monstrosity may in 
the first instance have given rise to this peculiar form. If 
so, it is not the only debt that mythology and art owe to 
teratology. A further example of late Celtic ornament is 
given in Fig. 85. The "Marlborough Bucket," now in the 



Devizes Museum, was found by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 
in St. Margaret's Mead, Marlborough, and contained 
burnt human bones. It was classed by its finder as 
Roman, and by Wright^ as Saxon, 
but it appears to belong to the 
same class as the situla at Ayles- 
ford, and, thinks Mr. Evans, may 
be recognised as an article of 
Armoric fabric imported into south- 
western Britain. If so, it would be 
an additional witness to the trade 
connection which seems to have 
existed between the western tract 
of Gaul and the opposite coasts of 
our own island, of which the finds 
of Gaulish coins of the Channel Islands, or of Ar- 
moric type in Devonshire and Hants, have already 
supplied interesting evidence. The fir-wood, of which 
this bucket was made, has perished, and its place is 
now taken by modern staves. The sides are quite 
vertical, therefore the iron hoops which held the staves 
together would not "bind," and the vessel was probably 
not intended to contain liquids. A thick hollow bar of 
iron crossed the top of the bucket, and was fixed into the 
ends of two staves projecting above the rim. This was 
apparently intended not as a handle, but to fasten down 
a lid of wood, of which traces were found adhering to the 
under side of the bar. Two drop-handles of iron were 
fastened to the sides. The decoration consisted of three 
broad bands of thin bronze, fastened to the wood by round 
bronze-headed nails of iron. Fragments only of these 
bands remain, but they were covered with repousse 
ornament of grotesque animal forms and human heads.^ 
The side-curls attached to some of the heads on the 

■* Celt, Ro7nan and Saxon, 400. 

2 Catalogue of Devizes Museum, No. 387. 


bucket seem to have been derived by direct descent from 
the early Phoenician bowls and situlse found in the tombs 
of Palestrina and elsewhere. 

Bowls. — A group of bowls of this period has been 
described by Romilly Allen, ^ who finds in their orna- 
mentation a link between the flamboyant ornament of 
the Pagan Celtic metal-work and the spiral ornament 
of the Celtic MSS. and sculptured stones. Their mount- 
ings, in the shape of small circular enamel discs, have 
often been looked upon as personal ornaments. Objects 
of this class w^ere found in a grave at Barlaston, in Stafford- 
shire, and described as portions of a Saxon helmet, by 
Jewitt.- The grave in this case was cut in a solid Red 
Sandstone rock, and at one end there was a recess con- 
taining the remains of a bowl with three very beautifully 
enamelled plates, each provided with a hook. The bowls 
to which these and other similar objects belong have the 
following peculiarities : (i.) A concave fluted moulding 
just below the rim. (ii.) Hooks for suspension by means 
of rings, with zoomorphic terminations projecting over 
the rim. The lower portions of the hooks, which are 
fixed to the convex sides of the bowl, are in the form of 
circular discs, or of an oval with the lower end pointed, 
or of the body of a bird, (iii.) Champleve enamel decora- 
tions, either on the lower part of the hooks or on separate 
pieces of metal of various shapes attached as mountings 
to the bowl, (iv.) A ring on a disc fixed to the bottom of 
the bowl, which is corrugated to give it additional rigidity, 
with, in some cases, strengthening ribs round the sides of 
the bowl in addition. The bowls now under consideration 
seem to belong to the end of the Late Celtic period and 
the beginning of the Saxon. Other bowels of bronze, but 
unprovided with the enamel ornaments described above, 

1 Airhaologia, hi. 39. " Grave JMoiinds, p. 258. 


were common in the Late Celtic period, 
and perhaps one of the best known of 
them is that which was found in the 
Glastonbury village, and of which fac- 
similes are now to be purchased. This 
bowl was furnished with projecting 
bosses by way of ornament. 

Swords. — The sword and sheath shown 
in Figs. 86 and 87 were found on the 
moors of Catterdale, at the head of 
Wensleydale, Yorkshire, and described 
by the late Sir A. W. Franks. ^ The 
remarkable feature about it is that it 
still retains considerable portions of its 
handle, these remains being of thin 
bronze, probably once attached to horn 
or hard wood. The blade is of iron. 
The sheath, which, unlike the blade of 
the sword, is in a good state of pre- 
servation, is of bronze. The front is 
comparatively plain, but the back is 
strengthened by a band of bronze, of 
which the upper part spreads out into 
a pierced triangular plate. At about 
two-fifths of its length it widens into a 
very prominent loop, through which no 
doubt a belt or rather cord or chain was 
passed. The end of the sheath, the 
total length of which is twenty-three 
inches, is protected by a solid bifurcate 
chape. In the paper just mentioned an 
account is given of the various swords 
of this class which had then been dis- ^'^^' ^^' 


^ ArchcBologia, i. 251. swoRD- 


FIG. 86. I.ATE 


covered ; a class found as far west as Ireland and as far 
east as Hungary, as far north as Scotland and as far 
south as the Apennines. In general character all these 
swords resemble one another, their length varying from 
3 feet 6 inches to i foot 8 inches. The ends are fairly 
sharp, though not as pointed as the bronze swords which 
preceded them. The tangs are of tolerable length, so 
as to fit into a handle of good size. The handles, which 
have rarely been preserved, were formed in a few in- 
stances either entirely or partly of bronze, but more 
usually they were made of some material which has per- 
ished, probably of wood. The sheaths are, in England, 
often made of bronze, more rarely of iron. The loops 
for suspension are, in one variety, very prominent and 
half-way down the sheath. In another and commoner 
variety they are less prominent and at the upper end. 
The tops of the sheaths are frequently straight, though 
more generally ogee-shaped, and fitting into a corres- 
ponding curved bar in the handles. Franks divided 
these weapons into three classes, viz. (i.) Bronze sheaths 
with bifurcate ends and very large loops half-way 
down the backs, found only in England and Scotland, 
(ii.) Sheaths with broad rounded ends and the loop 
towards the upper part, found both in England and 
abroad. (iii.) End of the sheath more pointed, and 
strengthened with a peculiar heart-shaped termination, 
found in England and Ireland, but more common on the 

Shields. — Two kinds of bronze shields hav-e been dis- 
covered in this country, round and oblong. The latter 
are placed in the British Museum amongst the objects 
belonging to the Late Celtic period, a position which 

^ For ;i further example of the first class see a paper with illustration by 
Greenwell, Proc. Sac. Anf., ii. xvi. 4. 


no one would dispute. The former are classed amongst 
the ordinary bronze objects, but will be described here 
for purposes of contrast with the other variety, which, 
there is no reason to doubt, they preceded. 

Of the round variety there are several specimens in 
the British Museum. Two of these were found in 
Wales on Moel Siabod and at Rhyd-y-Gorse, near 
Aberystwith, respectively,^ and have concentric circles 
of raised moulding, with concentric bands composed of 
rounded knobs between them. Two others found in the 
Thames are similar in character, but the mouldings and 
the knobs are much bolder and the number of rows of 
both is much smaller. In the Welsh examples there 
are twenty rows of studs, whilst in those found in the 
Thames there are only four. 

The remains of another circular shield, but this time 
found in connection with Late Celtic objects, was dis- 
covered at Grimthorpe, Yorkshire, and was classed by 
its describers as Anglo-Saxon.- On the breast of the 
skeleton lay a mass of decayed wood, a quantity of 
ferruginous dust — probably all that was left of the 
handle and inside fittings of the shield — and remains 
of decomposed leather. On these lay two thin plates of 
bronze, and the umbo or boss of the same metal. The 
plates of bronze are not much thicker than writing paper, 
measure \2\ inches from point to point of the semi- 
circles which they form, and are 3| inches in width in the 
middle. They have a raised pattern around their border. 
This shield appears, then, to have been made of wood, 
faced with plates of bronze and with a bronze umbo, 
covered or backed with leather and perhaps provided with 
an iron handle and fastenings. Other round shields have 
been found in Scotland and in Ireland as well as in this 

^ ArchcEologia, xxii. 

^ Mortimer, Reliquary, ix. iSo; JevviU, Grave Mounds, 245. 



country.^ Descriptions of some of them will be found 
in Evans' work- and in Ridgeway's chapter on the Round 
Shields.^ In the latter work it is pointed out that the 
round shield with a central boss is characteristic both of 
the Achean and the Hall- 
stadt folk, and that bronze 
shields of the type men- 
tioned above all possessed 
a backing of leather. A 
lining of leather has, in 
fact, survived in some 
of the bronze shields of 
Etruria. In Ireland, at 
least, these defensive 
weapons seem to have 
been used in the early 
Christian period, for 
sculptured upon one of 
the crosses at Kells, co. 
Meath, are armoured fig- 
ures with round shields.* 
Of the oblong shields 
there are two very beauti- 
ful examples in the British 
Museum, a portion of one 
of them being shown in 
Fig. 88. This shield was 
found in the Thames, near 
Battersea. It is 2 feet 
6h inches in length, and 
curves inwards at the sides. 

FIG. 88. 

British Museum 

It has a central boss, a 

^ Round shields of thin bronze, with alternating ridges and rows of 
knobs, also a snake-ornamented shield, are to be seen in the Edinburgh 
Museum of Antiquities. ^ Ancient Bronze Implements. 

■^ Op. cit., 453. ■* Wakeman's Handbook, 229. 


very marked feature, ornamented with what looks like 
a modified swastika. The remainder of the shield is 
decorated with wavy patterns and ornaments, relieved 
with red enamel. 

The other shield, which was found in the River Witham, 
is oval, and measures 3 feet 8^ inches in length. It has 
in its centre a much decorated boss, in the middle of 
which are set some fragments of coral, and other pieces 
of the same substance are near to it. When it was first 
found this shield was further decorated with the figure of 
a boar with very much elongated legs. A drawing near 
the shield shows what this figure looked like, but it does 
not appear precisely how it was worked upon the shield. 
Both of these shields may be referred to the La Tene 
culture, and probably belonged to Belgic warriors. 

Brooches. — Ridgeway points out that^ the primitive 
safety-pin, which is the foundation form of brooches 
with a catch, was a development from the simple pin, 
which itself was probably preceded by and derived from 
a thorn, and, as he aptly notes, the two Irish words for 
a brooch, eo and dealg, both mean a thorn, just as in 
German we get dorn, with the signification of the pin of 
a brooch. "For greater security," he proceeds, "some- 
one with a progressive mind bent up the pin after passing 
it through the garment and caught the point behind the 
head. The inventor, or som.eone else wishing to get a 
better hold for the point of the pin, gave the pin a com- 
plete turn, and thus produced the spring." Once this 
point had been reached, development produced the numer- 
ous patterns of fibula or safety-pin of the Late Celtic and 
succeeding ages. There is, however, a very important 
difference between the Late Celtic fibula and its Roman 

1 Op. cit., "The Brooch," p. 552. On the subject of the evolution of the 
brooch see a paper by Ridg-eway and R. A. Smith, Proc. Soc. Anf., xxi. 97, 
and on the simple pin a paper by the last-named author, Proc. Soc. Anf., 
XX. 344. 



successor. The former is made of one piece of metal, 
and the head has not to be fixed by a hook. On the 
other hand, the Roman fibula, as found here and else- 
where in the Roman provinces, is made in two pieces. 
The pin and the spring are separate from the bow, and 
are provided with a hook to catch the loop of the spiral. 
A brooch of the La Tene pattern, 
the characters of which have been 
given in the first part of this chapter, 
has been found in Britain, and an 
example from Suffolk is figured and 
described by Ridgeway in his chapter 
on the subject. Some of these 
brooches were ornamented with 
enamel, as, for example, one in the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, which 
bears a fly with blue enamelled wings. 
The brooch represented in Fig. 89 
was found in the Thames at Datchet. 
It is made of bronze, and is orna- 
mented with seven beads of amber 
and three of blue glass. It is believed to belong to 
the period with which this chapter deals.^ 

FIG. 89 

Armlets and Torques. — Fig. 90 shows an elaborate 
torque intended to be worn round the neck, found in a 
gravel-bed at Perdeswell, near Claines, Worcestershire. 
Only a portion of the object was discovered, but its 
vertebrated pattern closely resembles a bronze armlet 
found by Greenwell in a Late Celtic barrow at Cowlam. 
Torques were sometimes made of gold, and one found 
near Holywell, in Flintshire, is now at Eaton Hall. It 
weighs twenty-eight ounces, and is forty-four inches in 
circumference. The armlets, which were of smaller size, 

•^ Proc. Sue. ylnL, ii. xv. 191, with coloured figure. 


were intended to be worn, not on the wrist, like a bracelet, 
but higher up above the elbow. 

Perdeswell, Worcester 

Horse-trappings. — Many objects belonging to this period 
must be omitted, from considerations of space, but mention 
must be made of the bits, rings, head-ornaments, and 
other objects connected with the harness of the chariot 
horses. Objects of this class may well be studied in the 
collections from the Polden Hills in Somersetshire, and 
from Stanwick in Yorkshire, which are exhibited in the 
British Museum. 

Enamelling. — Mention has several times been made of 
the application of this beautiful art to ornaments and 
objects of daily use, and it may once more be pointed 
out that the art was introduced into this country by the 
Late Celtic people. In the British Museum there are 
examples of its application to brooches, armlets, and 
horse-bits, as well as to some larger objects. Red, blue, 
and yellow are the chief colours made use of. 



TO deal adequately with the subject of this chapter 
would require a book not less in size than the 
present manual. This chapter must, therefore, be 
looked upon as a mere note on the subject, inserted 
because to omit any mention of the kind of men who 
made the objects described in the preceding pages would 
be to leave a gap which ought in some way, however in- 
adequate, to be filled. 

Of the remains of men belonging to the palaeolithic 
stratum of culture there are but few, and these few are in 
many cases still doubtfully attributed to that epoch. In 
fact, the changes of view which have taken place as to 
the position of what are generally regarded as the most 
ancient skulls make it very difficult to lay down any laws 
which are not in danger of modification by further altera- 
tions in scientific opinion. The best-authenticated skulls 
or fragments of skulls belonging to the Palceolithic Period 
are those from Heidelberg, Neanderthal, Spy, Naulette, 
Malarnaud, Krapina, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Mentone 
(lowest strata), Briinn, Brux, Galley Hill, Bury St. 
Edmunds, Cro-Magnon, Laugerie-Basse, Prince-Jean, 
and Chancelade. Of these skulls some notice must 
now be taken, but before doing so it will be necessary to 
mention briefly the lines upon which craniologists work in 
determining the differences between individual crania and 




groups of crania. The method adopted in the past, and 
still in full operation, has been to take certain measure- 
ments of length, breadth, etc., and to construct from them 
certain indices, affording matter of comparison between 
different skulls. Of all these indices the most commonly 
employed is that known as the "Cephalic Index," by 
which the relations of length and breadth are estimated. 
Any person looking at the drawings of the two skulls 
shown in Figs. 91 and 92, and especially at those 
drawings which show the top view of the skull, or norma 
verticalis, can scarcely fail to notice that one of them is 
much longer than it is broad, whilst the breadth of the 
other approaches more nearly to its length. In other 
words, it is more nearly circular than the skull with 
which it is being contrasted. In order to ascertain more 
exactly the relations between length and breadth than 
can be done by merely looking at the skulls, two 
measurements are taken. The first of these is from the 
centre of the forehead (glabella) above the root of the 
nose, to the prominence at the back of the skull (inion, 
or external occipital protuberance). This gives the 
maximum length. The second is at right angles to the 
first, and is taken at the point of maximum breadth, 
which may be nearer to the front or back of the skull, 
according to its shape. The length is multiplied by 100 
and divided by the breadth, the result being the index 
required. Various divisions of skulls, according to the 
results given by this method, have been suggested, 
though all agree that there are three main classes, 
namely, long or dolichocephalic, intermediate or mesati- 
cephalic, and short or brachycephalic crania. Broca's 
division is as follows : — 

Skulls with index below 777 . Dolichocephalic. 

Above this and below 80 . . Mesaticephalic. 

Above So .... . Brachycephalic. 




Besides this index there are others relating to the orbit 
and many other parts of the cranium, which cannot be 
touched upon here. Another method of measurement is 
to take the cranial capacity in cubic centimetres by filling 
the skull with shot or millet seeds, and measuring the 
amount which it is capable of containing. In addition 
various angles are measured with a view of estimating, 


amongst other things, the amount of the projection of the 
lower part of the face (prognathism and orthognathism), 
though less importance is assigned to this particular 
observation than was once the case. A more recent 
method of comparison of skulls which, though as yet in 
its infancy, may revolutionise the subject of craniology, 
is the natural system of Sergi.^ Here the entire contour 
of the skull is taken into consideration, and not merely 
isolated measurements from point to point. So far the 
difficulty in connection with this system has been that it 
comprises a series of forms which have to be estimated 
by eye. So far as the leading types, when characteristic 
specimens are selected, are concerned, there is not much 
difficulty about this. But the intermediate types, and 
those on the borderland, may easily be assigned to one 
class by one observer, and to another by a second. 
An attempt to estimate these differences, and arrange the 
skulls in Sergi's classes by means of geometrical figures, 
has recently been made by Wright,- and in some such 
direction, no doubt, the problem of arranging these forms 
so as to be truly comparable by all observers will be 

Passing now from these prefatory observations to the 
consideration of the skulls themselves, it will be well to 
review the features of some of the examples at present 
believed to belong to the earliest periods. This must be 
done at somewhat greater length than will be necessary 
in connection with those undoubtedly belonging to the 
Neolithic and Bronze periods. 

Palaeolithic. — Amongst the skulls belonging to the 
earliest periods, that which has of late years attracted 
the greatest amount of discussion is that found at Trinity 

^ specie e Varietd Umana, "The j\Iediterranean Race," etc. 
2 Ma7i, Aiig'ust, 1903, 


in Java, by Dr. E. Dubois.^ For the animal to which 
this skull belonged a new family, that of Pithecanthropus, 
has been formed by its discoverer. At the present 
moment, however, it must be admitted that there is so 
much divergence of opinion as to this skull, that it is 
impossible to base any arguments upon it. At the same 
place as the skull, but at twelve to fifteen metres from it, 
was found a femur, or thigh-bone, and also in the same 
neighbourhood a molar tooth. It has been assumed by 
the discoverer and by some others that all these remains 
belonged to the same individual. Though this is possible, 
it is by no means certain, nor can it ever be proved, and 
this fact adds greatly to the difficulty in deciding as to the 
character of the skull. There is no doubt that the femur 
is that of a human being, and the disease from which its 
possessor suffered is a perfectly well recognised one. 
The molar tooth, though very large, is almost certainly 
human. As for the skull, which is the real crux, the 
opinions of scientific men who have examined it are very 
much at variance. Virchow declared that it was patho- 
logical, but that distinguished man had rather a tendency 
to take that view of certain early skulls, for he came to 
the same conclusion as to the Neanderthal example. At 
the same time other men of science have held the same 
opinion respecting the Trinil skull, and Sir William 
Turner, without expressing the view that it is patho- 
logical, has pointed out that the skull of a microcephalous 
idiot presents a frontal flattening very analogous to the 
Javan example. The theory that the condition is patho- 
logical, and due to an early synostosis or junction of the 
sutures, is not one which can at present be ruled out of 

^ Pithecanthropus erectus, eine Ucbergatigsforni ans Java, Batavia, 1894. 
On the question of the geologfical position of these remains see a paper by 
Deniker in L' Anthropologie, xix. 260. The deposit has been presumed to be 


Then there is the view held by Sergi,^ a very skilled 
craniologist, that the skull is that of *'an animal with 
some human characteristics, but, in my opinion, it is not 
man nor the intermediary type; it is a higher type of the 
other anthropomorphic species." 

To this may be added Deniker's^ opinion that the owner 
of the skull was "a being more closely related to man 
than to the anthropoid apes, or even a man of a race 
inferior to all existing ones." 

Perhaps scientific opinion in this country would find 
itself most in agreement with Cunningham's^ view that 
Pithecanthropus, to give him his discoverer's title, cannot 
represent a transition animal between man and any of the 
existing anthropoids, since he stands in the direct line of 
human divergence in the genealogical tree, as will be seen 
in a graphic manner below. 

European Races 1,550 c.c. cranial capacity. 

Low Races 

Chimpanzee, 350 c.c. 

cr. cap. 

1,250 c.c. cranial capacity. 
1,000 c.c. cranial capacity. 

/Gorilla and Orangf, 

500 c.c. cranial capacity. 

If, however, the skull can be called human, and if it is 
not pathological, it is certain that it is of considerably 
lower type than that of any other race or healthy indi- 
vidual as yet known. The figure 93 annexed* shows the 
curve of the vault of the skull in this example, as com- 
pared with the curves of a chimpanzee on the one hand, 
and with those of the Spy and Cro-Magnon skulls on the 

^ The Mediterranean Race, 201. 

2 The Races of Man, 360. 

^ Nature, February 28th, 1895. 

* After Manouvrier, Bull. Soc. d'' Anthropologic, 1896, 438, 


The Heidelberg" mandible is probably the oldest speci- 
men of man with which we are acquainted. It was 

found in IQ07 at Mauer, ^ ^.^ -^ 

near Heidelberg, some S^'^^i^^ ^\ 

twenty-five yards below / xl ^^'^"''^ — ^^^\ '^ \- 

the surface, in a deposit / /^ ^ a,rr,;^j e. . ^^V■^^i \ 

of sand which is to be \/y^ ^"^\"- \ \ \ 

attributed to the earliest o-..^X. _\ .\....)l.L 

Pleistocene or possibly /V 1\ ) f 

to the late Pliocene. / ^ * 

The chief features of the fig. 93 

jaw are its thickness, curves of vaults ok various skulls 

its width, and the complete absence of a chin. The teeth 
are all present, and are very similar to those of present- 
day mah.^ 

The Neanderthal skull was found in a limestone cave 
near Diisseldorf, and is attributed to the Mid-Pleistocene 
period. It possesses certain distinct simian attributes, of 
which the strongly developed superciliary eminences are 
the most striking. The cranial vault is long and low. 

The Spy skulls, known as Spy I and Spy II, were found 
in a cave at Spy, Namur, Belgium. Both skulls probably 
belonged to individuals of the male sex. The skull of 
Spy I bears a very close resemblance to the Neanderthal 
skull ; that of Spy II is of a somewhat higher type. The 
mandibles were devoid of a chin. The Spy individuals 
were short and thick-set. 

The Naulette and Malarnaud specimens are mere frag- 
ments of mandibles found at Naulette, Belgium, and at 
Malarnaud in the Pyrenees. Like the mandibles from 
Spy, they are chinless. 

The Krapina skulls were found in a cave at Krapina in 
Croatia, Hungary, and are too fragmentary to make any 
considerable addition to our knowledge. It is, however, 

^ Der Unterkiefer des Homo Heidelbergensis, Schoetensack (author), 1908. 


interesting to note that the foreheads possess prominent 
superciliary ridges, so that in this important anthropo- 
logical feature the skulls are akin to those from Nean- 
derthal and Spy. 

The La Chapelle-aux-Saints^ skeleton was found in a 
cave in the Department of Correze as recently as August, 
1908. The skull belongs to the same class as those already 
mentioned. The superciliary eminences are very pro- 
minent, the cranial vault is low and long, the mandible is 
thick, wide, and devoid of a chin. The face has a some- 
what pithecoid appearance from the absence of any canine 

All the skulls so far mentioned belong to a single 
morphological type of marked homogeneity ; the greatest 
variation is probably exhibited by Spy II. All these 
skulls, moreover, with the probable exception of the 
Heidelberg mandible, are of the same age ; they belong 
to the Mid-Pleistocene or Moustier period. This Nean- 
derthal-Spy type of man was, however, it would seem, not 
the only type which lived in Europe during the Moustier 
period. The Briinn and Brux skulls, the Galley Hill 
skeleton, the fragment from Bury St. Edmunds, and 
some of the Mentone skeletons are referable to the same 

The Briinn skeletons were found at Briinn, Moravia 
— one in 1885, the other in 1891. The skulls have a 
moderately high cranial vault, the superciliary eminences 
are not strikingly prominent, and the mandibles have a 
well-formed chin. 

The Brux skull is a mere fragment found at Brux, 
Bohemia. It is similar to those from Briinn. 

The Galley Hill skeleton was discovered at Galley Hill, 
Kent, in undisturbed stratified palaeolithic gravel 90 feet 
O.D. It lay 8 feet below the surface, 2 feet above the 

^ Boule, L Anthropologic, 1908. 


chalk. It bears a close resemblance to the Briinn skulls 
in the three particulars noted above, particulars which 
permit one to differentiate easily between the Neanderthal- 
Spy and the Briinn-Galley Hill types. 

The Bury St. Edmunds skull is a mere fragment of 
the cranial vault. It was found in brick earth near 
Bury St. Edmunds at a depth of 7J feet. So far as 
it is possible to judge, it is allied to the Galley Hill 

A third type of Moustier man has been obtained from 
La Grotte des Enfants^ — one of the Baousse-Rousse caves 
at Mentone. It is represented by two skeletons, one that 
of a boy, the other that of an old woman, which were 
found under ten metres of deposit in beds of Moustier 
date. The cranium of this type is characterised by a high 
vault, an almost vertical forehead, and the faintest of 
superciliary eminences. In these respects the cranium 
resembles that of the negro, a resemblance which is still 
further borne out by certain features in the face and limbs 
of the skeletons. 

There is strong evidence, therefore, for the belief that in 
Moustier time three distinct types of man were to be found 
in Europe. The origin of man is thus seen to belong to a 
period much more remote than that of the Mid-Pleistocene 
— a conclusion which the archaeological evidence showed 
us to be incontestable. 

The other Palaeolithic skulls — those from Cro-Magnon, 
Laugerie-Basse, Prince-Jean, and Chancelade — belong to 
the Madeleine period, and are all of one type, which is 
closely akin to the Briinn-Galley Hill type of the earlier 

The Cro-Magnon specimens are four in number, and 
were found under a rock shelter in the valley of La Vezere. 
The best-preserved skull is that of an old man. The fore- 

^ Les Grottes de Grimaldi, MM. Villeneuve, Boule et Verneau, 1906. 


head is high, the superciliary eminences faint, the chin 

The Laugerie-Basse specimen was also found under a 
rock shelter in the same district. 

The Prince-Jean specimen was found in a cave at 
Prince-Jean, Moravia. 

These three skulls bear the closest possible resemblance 
to each other, and exhibit a remarkable feature termed 
" dysharmony," which consists in the association of a 
long cranium with a short, broad face. 

The Chancelade skull was found in the same district as 
that from Cro-Magnon. The skull is not dysharmonic, 
but in all other respects resembles the three skulls pre- 
viously mentioned. It is remarkable for the large size of 
its cranial cavity, 1,710, 100 more than that of 
the average Frenchman of to-day. 

A number of similar skulls to those from Cro-Magnon 
have been recovered from the higher levels of the Mentone 
caves. They are not to be confused with the two Moustier 
skulls from the lower strata. 

So far, therefore, as the state of our knowledge allows 
us to form a conclusion, the Neanderthal type and the 
Mentone negroid type, in at any rate their extreme forms, 
were already extinct in Europe before the end of the 
Palaeolithic period. 

Mesolithic. — The Mesolithic period is itself so vague 
that it is scarcely to be expected that any skulls can be 
justifiably allotted to it. 

Neolithic. — The skeletons of the people of this period 
and of the next in this country are numerous, and have 
been very fully studied, so that we can form a very fair 
idea of what the physical characteristics of the race were. 
In this country the greatest number of skeletons examined 


have been those from Wilts and Gloucester, but others 
have been investigated from other parts of this island. 
The skull of Neolithic man in England is very similar to 
that of Cro-Magnon man, so much so that the latter man 
was at one time, in defiance of the archaeological evidence, 
judged to belong to the Neolithic period. The skulls 
belonging to this period — those which are found in the 
long barrows — are dolichocephalic, with good foreheads, 
slightly developed superciliary eminences, and with small 
and well-shaped jaws. The stature perhaps averaged 
about five feet and half an inch. The bones, generally 
speaking, were slender, often with a well-marked ridge 
on the back of the femur and a flattening of the tibia, 
from which we gather that they were those of a people 
active on their feet, probably much engaged in the chase. 
It is not improbable that this description of Neolithic man 
is not applicable to the whole of Britain. It must be 
remembered that practically all we know of the appearance 
of Neolithic man is derived from the bones obtained from 
a very small area of our country, viz. Wilts, Gloucester- 
shire, and Dorset. Skulls obtained from the Perthi 
Chwareu caves in Denbighshire indicate that North 
Wales was inha] ited in Neolithic times by a people who 
were more round-headed than long-headed.^ 

Bronze. — Here again there is no lack of skulls and 
skeletons, and the descriptions of them are many. In 
the barrows of this period we find long skulls, round 
skulls, and skulls of intermediate shape. The first may 
have belonged to the earlier people, the second to a 
race which had invaded the country, and the third 
may be attributed to the intermixture of these two 
people. Or the collocation may be explained without 
supposing the arrival of a different race, but these are 

^ Boyd Dawkins, Cave Hunting. 


points into which it is impossible to enter here. Suffice 
it to say that the skulls regarded as typical of this period 
are brachycephalic, of large size and with well-formed 
brow. There arc salient ridges above the eyes, but these 
are not the monstrous projections of the Neanderthal 
type. One gains the idea that the cast of countenance 
of the possessors of these skulls must have been much 
more fierce and commanding than that of the milder 
race which preceded them. They were also taller, their 
average stature being about live feet five inches, a 
measurement which, in fact, exceeds the stature of the 
present inhabitants of this country. Dr. Thurnam, from 
his examination of the bones of these two races, has also 
come to the conclusion that the average age at the time of 
death was higher than that of the preceding race. That 
of the Neolith, in his opinion, was forty-five, that of the 
man of the Bronze period fifty-five. 



THIS list of museums has been compiled for the use of 
persons visiting different parts of the country who may 
desire to study the objects described in this book. Con- 
siderable trouble has been taken to ascertain the special features 
of interest in each collection, and it is hoped that no important 
museum has been omitted. In a few cases where the interest 
of the collection lies chiefly in the Roman series, or where there 
are important objects belong-ing- to this period, the fact has been 
indicated in the table. The symbol x shows that objects are 
present, - that they are absent. The same symbols have been 
used to indicate that a catalogue or guide is or is not published. 




• 6 





5 3 



Bedfordshire — 

Bedford, Lit. and Sci. Inst. 




Berkshire — 

Reading * . . . 




Roman, from 

Cambridgeshire — 

Cambridge, Arch. Mus.* . 





,, Woodwardian Mus. 







Cheshire — 




Important Ro- 
man series, 
with Cata- 

X 2 












Cornwall — 











Keswick, Fitz Park . 




Derbyshire — 






Devonshire — 





Plymouth Institution 



Dorsetshire — 

Dorchester * . . . 





Rimbury objects. 

Farnham ** . . , 




Objects de- 
scribed in 

Durham — 

Ushaw College 



Essex — 

Colchester Castle 




Fine Roma n 

Gloucestershire — 








Fine Roman 
series, with 

Cheltenham College . 








Hampshire — 

Newport, Isle of Wight 




Ryde, Isle of Wight . 







Herefordshire — 









Kent — 





















Lancashire — 









Stonyhurst College . 




Leicestershire — 






Lincolnshire — 






Middlesex — 

London, British Museum ** 





,, Guildhall 





,, Nat. Hist. Mus., 

South Kensington 


Type series of 

,, Society of Antiquaries 




Norfolk — 






Northamptonshire — 





Late Celtic 
series from 

Northumberland — 

Alnwick Castle 




Catalogue for 
private circu- 
lation only. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne . 



Important Ro- 
man series, 
with Cata- 






rt -r, 

2 i 

a Ml 


Nottinghamshire — 

Nottingham . 





Oxfordshire — 

Oxford, Pitt-Rivers ** 



,, Ashmolean . 




Important Late 
Celtic series. 

Shropshire — 





Shrewsbury . 



Important Ro- 
man series 
from Viro- 

Somerset — 

Bath, R. Lit. and Sci. Inst. 






Objects from 






Objects from 

Suffolk — 

Bury St. Edmunds, Movses 

Hall . / . 









Surrey — 

Godalming-, Charterhouse 










Sussex — 












Warwickshire — 

Birmingham, University . 





















a bi) 






Wiltshire — 

Devizes * . . . 





Colt Hoare Col- 

Marlborough College 





Salisbury, Blackmore Mu- 





Perhaps the 


most valuable 
series of stone 
i m p 1 e m e n t s 
in England. 

Worcestershire — 





Yorkshire — 

Driffield, Mortimer Museum 




Giggleswick School . 




Objects from the 

Hull .... 








Leeds . . . . 




Scarborough . 




Gristhorpe ob- 














Arras objects. 
Most import- 
ant Roman 


Note. — Names only occurring in the Lists are not included in the Index. 

Abbeville, 21 

Ablington, 193 

Abraded palEeoiiths, 47, 49 

Accoinpanyingf yifts, 147 

Adze, stone, y:^ 

Aegfyptus, grave of, iSi 

^'Eneolithic period, 88 

Alien interments, 131 

Alig"nments, 190 

"Alli^es couvertes," 134 

Allen, Romilly, 293 

Amber, 126 

Amphitheatre, Roman, 207 

Angflesea Castle, dolmen, 174 

Armlets, 299 

Arras, 273, 287 

Arrow-heads, stone, 17, 81 ; bronze, 

17, 96, 102 ; bone, 1 12 
Art, Palaeo- and Mesolithic, 112; 

Neolithic and Bronze, 120 ; Late 

Celtic, 290 
Asylian period, 13, 59 
Australian natives, manufacture of 

implements from glass, etc., 23y 

Avebury, 189 
Avebury, Lord, Man and Glacial 

epoch, 8 
Aylesford, 273, 287 

Bambury Stone, 214 

Barrows, varieties of, 131 ; long, 131 ; 
chambered, 132 ; unchambered, 
134; round, 140; bell, bowl, and 
disc, 140; structure of round, 141 ; 
bodies in, 143 ; accompanying 
g-ifts, 147 ; bones of animals in, 
142; shards, 143; list of barrows, 

"Batons de commandement," so- 
called, no 

Beads, jet, amber, glass, 126, 148 
Beehive huts, 268 ; subterranean, 

Blackmore, Dr., on eoliths, 39 
Blois Hall, 207 

" Blue " stones at Stonehenge, 185 
Bodowr dolmen, 178 
Bokerley Dyke, 221 
Bone implements, 107 
Borers, stone, 83 ; bone, 112 
Boring-stones, 39 
Boucher de Perthes, 21 
Bowls, Late Celtic, 293 
Bracers, 86 

Brachycephalic skulls, 302 
Braich-y-Dinas, 268 
Brandon, 24 
Bredon Hill, 213 
British Museum, 20,60, 96, 112, 273, 

287, 296, 300, 315 
British villages, 256, 274 
Bronze Age, divisions of, 91 
Brooches, 298 ; Hallstadt, 284 ; La 

Tene, 285 
Broom, 30, 47 
Buckets, Late Celtic, 290 
Bulb of percussion, 23 

Caddington, 51 

"Caesar's Camp," Folkestone, 209 

Cairns, horned, 133; of Arran, 134 

Callernish, 191 

Campignian period, 13 

" Camps," 209 

Cannibalism, possible, of Neolithic 

man, 138 
Cap-stone, 132 
Castel-Meur, 212 
Casting- bronze, methods of, 103 
Caves, 53 ; La Mouthe and other 

French caves, 54 ; English, 59 




Cave implements, 46 

Celtic period, Late, 257, 2S2 

Celts, stone, 68; polished, 70; bored, 

70 ; handled, 73 ; bronze, 94 
Cenotaphs, supposed, 147 
Cephalic index, 302 
Ceremonial celts: stone, 86; bronze, 

Cervidian period, 13, log, 113 

Chalbury, 207 

Chancelade skull, 309 

Chariot-burials, 286 

Chellean period, 56 

Chert implements, 30 

Chipping- stones, 35 

Chisels, bronze, loi ; horn, 112 

Chysoyster, 268 

Cinerary urns, 151 

Circles : stone, varieties, 180 ; great 
circles, 183 ; possible orientation, 
1 88 ; theories respecting', 184 

Cissbury, 14, 25, 69 

Cistvaens, 179 

Cit^s agrestes, 256 

Cittiau,' 268 

Classification of Geological periods, 
3 ; of Prehistoric periods, 9 

"Cliff-castles," 211 

Clun, 194, 221 

Coffey, G., go, 124 

Coffin, wooden, in barrows, 147 

Concave scrapers, 79 

Copper Age, 89 

Copper, state on discovery, 89 

"Couches infra-neolithiques," 13 

Crannoges, 270 

Creighton, Bishop, on mediseval 
huts, 264 

Cremation and inhumation, 129, 143; 
proportions, 130; method of cre- 
mation in long barrows, 137 

Cro-Magnon, 57; skulls, 301, 306, 

Cup-and-ring markings, 123, 194 
Cyprus, 89 

Daggers, Scandinavian flint, 19 ; 

bronze, 98; carved horn, 117 
Dane's Dyke, Flamborough Head, 

212, 220 
" Dane's Graves," 286 
Dartmoor, 19 1 

Dawkins, Boyd, 13, 16, 59, 279, 311 
Dene-holes, 266 
Designs in French caves, 54 

Dewlish, eoliths found at, 7 
Dictyaean Cave, 98 
Dol, 194 

Dolichocephalic skulls, 302 
Dolmens, 174; double, 175; distri- 
bution of, i7g; list of, ig5 
Double-headed animals, 291 
Dowris, 93 
Dress-fasteners, 110 
Drills, stone, 83 
Drinking-cups, 151 
Druid's altar, 174 
" Druid " barrow, 141 
Druimvargie, 16 
Dykes, 220 

Earthworks : shapes, 205 ; classifi- 
cation, 206 ; list of, 224 

Eggardon, 258 

Egyptian knives, 19 

Elephants, fossil, 5 

Enamelling, 300 

Eoliths, 14, 40 

Equidian period, 113 

Esk Valley camps, 214 

Evans, A. J., 273, 287, 289, 290, 292 

Evans, Sir J., 22, 34, 37, 39.96, 101, 
103, 297 

Fabricators, stone, 83 

" Farmer Green," 177 

Farnham Museum, 206, 260 

" Femme au renne," 114 

Fibulae, 298 

Figurines, female, 113; "i la ca- 

puche," 114 
Fisherton, 259 

Flaking, 36 ; by pressure, 36 
Flamborough Head, 212, 220 
Flanged celts, 95 
Flint and steel, 148 
Flint-jack, 38 
Food vessels, 150 
Forests, prehistoric, 221 
French camps, 209 
"Friar's Heel, The," 189 

Galley Hill skull, 308 
Gatty, Rev. R. A., 84 
Geological time, period of, 2 
Geometric forms in Neolithic and 

Bronze art, 120, 149 
" Ghost-hedge," 142 
Glacial epoch, 3 
Glass, 126 


Glastonbury lake-village, 272 

Gl^'ptic period, 11, 113 

Gold ornanients, etc., 125, 147 

Gowland, 88, 90, 185 

Cioiild, Chalkley, 206 

Grime's Graves, 24 

Grotto du Pape, Bassempoiiy, 108, 

113 . 
Grubbing-tool, 72 

H addon, 74, 269 

Hallstadt, 98, 130, 2S3 

Hambledoii Hill, 210 

Harpoons, bone, 108 

Haverfield, 260 

Hedsor, 271 

Herefordshire Beacon, 218 

High Hiigill, 263 

Hill-forts, characteristics, 215 

Hoare, 100 

Hoards of copper and bronze objects, 
92 ; list, 104 

Hod Hill, 209 

Hoes, bone, 1 12 

Holed stones, 194 

Hollow scrapers, 79 

Holmes on manufacture of stone im- 
plements, 34 

Holywell torque, the, 299 

Horse-trappings, 300 

Hughes, McKenny, 28 

Human form, representations of, 113 

Hunnebedden, 134 

Hurstborne, 257, 258 

Hut-circles, 256 

Incense cups, 152 

Ingleborough, effects of flood on 

caverns, 28 
Inhumation and cremation, 129, 143; 

proportions, 130 
Interments, primary, secondary, 

alien, 130 
Iron axe-head, hammered up, 71 

Jade, 31 

Javelins and javelin-throwers, 1 10 

Jet, 126, 148 

Karar, Lake, implements found at, 14 
Kent's Hole, 26, 53 
Kitchen-middens, 66 
Kit's Coty House, 178 
Knives, stone, 75 ; handles, 77 
Knowles, 15, 80 

Lakenheath, 85, 87 
Lake-villages, 269; pottery of, 270 
Lanyon dolmen, 175 
La T^ne, 283, 290, 299 
Late Celtic period, 257, 282 
Laugerie-Basse, 59, 309 
Laugerie-Haute, ;;7 
Lead, how discovered, 88 
Littleton Drew, 134 

MacArtlnir Cave, 15 
Magdalenian epoch, 11, 57, loS, 113 
Maiden Castle, Dorset, 217 
Malvern: camp, 218; dyke, 224 
Mammals of Prehistoric period, 5, 

Mammals, representations of, in early 

art, 116 
Man, first appearance of, 6 
March, Dr. Colley, 85, 258 
Marlborough bucket, the, 291 
Mas d'Azil, layers in, 12; harpoons, 

109; coloured pebbles, 119 
Meayll Circle, 181 
Megaliths, list of, 197 
Men-an-Tol, 194 
Men-er H'roeck, 194 
Menhir, 139, 192 ; and barrow, 193 
Merivale rows, 191 
Mesaticephalic skulls, 302 
Mesolithic implements, 15 
Mill Riggs, 263 
Miocene period, 3 
Montelius's divisions of Bronze Age, 

gi ; of Iron Age, 283 
Mousterian period, 57 
Munro, 31, 268 
Museums, 313 
Myres, 89 

Neanderthal skull, 307 
Needles, bone, 112 
Neolithic implements, 65 
Notch in stone implements, 43 

Obsidian flakes, how made, 37 

Off'a's Dyke, 220 

Old Sarum, 209 

Oppidum, 207 

Ornaments, personal, 125 

Ortholiths, 139 

Otta, so-called miocene implements, 

Ovate paloeoliths, 49 



Palaeolithic implements, 11, 14, 46; 

varieties, 48; list of localities, 61 
Palaeolithic man, localities of, 59 
Palmette, 291 
Palstaves, 96 
Papalian period, 108 
Pebbles, coloured, at Mas d'Azil, iig 
Pele-g:arths, 207 
Pentre-Ifan, 178 
Perdeswell torque, the, 299 
Periods of Geological time, 2 
Piette, 12, 13, io8, no, 113, 119 
Piette, divisions of Palaeolithicperiod, 

Pig-my implements, 84 
Pile-dwellingfs, 268 
Pit-dwellingfs, 256 
Pithecanthropus, 305 
Pitt-Rivers, 14, 25, 205, 206, 215, 217, 

Plateau forts, 219; implements, 40 
Pleistocene period, 3 
Pliocene period, 3, 5 
" Pog-amagan," in 
Pottery, Neolithic and Bronze, 149 ; 

Late Celtic, 285, 288 
Pressigny, ^2 

Prestwich, Sir J., on eoliths, 41 
Primary interments, 130 
Promontory forts, 210; coast, 211; 

inland, 213 
Punches, stone, 83 

Quartzite implements, 30 
Quaternary epoch, 2 

Racloirs, 80 

Recent Geolog-ical period, 4 

Rhinoceros, fossil, 5 

Rido-eway, Professor, 86, 283, 297, 

Ripple-flaking-, 36 
River-drift implements, 46, 50 
Rock-shelters, 53 
Rodmarton, 133 
" Rounds," Cornish, 207 

Sacrifice of heifer, 177 
St. Acheul, 56 
" Sarsen " stones, 185 
Sawing' stones, 38 
Saws, stone, 83 ; bronze, loi 
Scabbards: of daggers, 100; of 
swords, 295 

Scandinavia, tree epochs, 66 
Scandinavian daggers, 19 
Scrapers, 49, 78 
Secondary interments, 130 
Semangs of Malaysia, implements, 

Sergi, 90, 129, 304, 306 
Shaft-makers, 80 
Shell period, 13 
Shields, 295 
Sickles, bronze, 102 
Situla?, Late Celtic, 290 
Skeletons: Neolithic, 310; Bronze, 

Skeuomorphs, 98 
Skulls, early, 304 

Smith, Worthingtoii, 15, 47, 48, 50 
Socketed celts, 97 
Solutrean period, 56 
Souterrains, 266 
Spearheads, loi 
Spiennes, 25 
Spindle-whorls, 87 
Spy skulls, 307 

"Stations A ciel ouvertes," 256 
Standlake, 258 
Stanton Drew, igo 
Stinchcombe Hill, 215 
Stone Agre, meaning of term, 10, n 
Stonehenge, 185 
Stone implements, features of, 19, 

22 ; uses of, 25 ; periods, 26 ; 

materials, 30 ; how worked, 34 
Sunken Kirk circle, 183 
Sussex earthworks, 217 
Swords: bronze leaf-shaped, 100; 

Hallstadt, 284 ; La T^ne, 285 ; 

Late Celtic in England, 294 

Terramare, 273 

Tertiary epoch, 2 

Thenay, so-called miocene imple- 
ments, 7 

Thornborough, 207 

Thurnam, 99, 140 

Tinglestone, 139, 192 

Torques, 299 

Transition from Palaeo- to Neolithic 
periods, 13 

Trevalgue Head, 211 

Tridacna, celts made of, t,;^ 

Triiiil skull, 305 

Tun-garths, 207 

Tweezers, bone, 112 

Twisted thong ornament, 149 


Uley barrow, 132 
Urn-fields, 288 

Venus of Bassempouy, 113 

Victoria Cave, 1^5 

Vindhya Hills, 84 

V'illages, 208, 256 ; list of, 274 

Walls, external and internal, of 

barrows, 139 
Wans Dyke, 221 

Water, want of, in earthworks, 215 
Watt's Dyke, 220 

Westbury-on-Trym, 93 

West Kennett barrow, 177, 181 

Wetlon, 265 

Weyland's Smithy, 133, 175 
Wheel, potter's, 149, 289 
White Park Bay, 15 
Winklebury, 20S 
Woodbury Hill, 210 
Woodcuts, 207, 257, 259 
Workshop, palaeolithic, 51, 52 
Worlebury, 208, 218, 265, 273 
Upright, W., 304 

Varnbury, 217 










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